Crystal meth and bipolar disorder

SAMHSA’s National Helpline | SAMHSA

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  • SAMHSA’s National Helpline is a free, confidential, 24/7, 365-day-a-year treatment referral and information service (in English and Spanish) for individuals and families facing mental and/or substance use disorders.

    Also visit the online treatment locator.

SAMHSA’s National Helpline, 1-800-662-HELP (4357) (also known as the Treatment Referral Routing Service), or TTY: 1-800-487-4889 is a confidential, free, 24-hour-a-day, 365-day-a-year, information service, in English and Spanish, for individuals and family members facing mental and/or substance use disorders. This service provides referrals to local treatment facilities, support groups, and community-based organizations.

Also visit the online treatment locator, or send your zip code via text message: 435748 (HELP4U) to find help near you. Read more about the HELP4U text messaging service.

The service is open 24/7, 365 days a year.

English and Spanish are available if you select the option to speak with a national representative. Currently, the 435748 (HELP4U) text messaging service is only available in English.

In 2020, the Helpline received 833,598 calls. This is a 27 percent increase from 2019, when the Helpline received a total of 656,953 calls for the year.

The referral service is free of charge. If you have no insurance or are underinsured, we will refer you to your state office, which is responsible for state-funded treatment programs. In addition, we can often refer you to facilities that charge on a sliding fee scale or accept Medicare or Medicaid. If you have health insurance, you are encouraged to contact your insurer for a list of participating health care providers and facilities.

The service is confidential. We will not ask you for any personal information. We may ask for your zip code or other pertinent geographic information in order to track calls being routed to other offices or to accurately identify the local resources appropriate to your needs.

No, we do not provide counseling. Trained information specialists answer calls, transfer callers to state services or other appropriate intake centers in their states, and connect them with local assistance and support.

  • Suggested Resources

    What Is Substance Abuse Treatment? A Booklet for Families
    Created for family members of people with alcohol abuse or drug abuse problems. Answers questions about substance abuse, its symptoms, different types of treatment, and recovery. Addresses concerns of children of parents with substance use/abuse problems.

    It's Not Your Fault (NACoA) (PDF | 12 KB)
    Assures teens with parents who abuse alcohol or drugs that, "It's not your fault!" and that they are not alone. Encourages teens to seek emotional support from other adults, school counselors, and youth support groups such as Alateen, and provides a resource list.

    After an Attempt: A Guide for Taking Care of Your Family Member After Treatment in the Emergency Department
    Aids family members in coping with the aftermath of a relative's suicide attempt. Describes the emergency department treatment process, lists questions to ask about follow-up treatment, and describes how to reduce risk and ensure safety at home.

    Family Therapy Can Help: For People in Recovery From Mental Illness or Addiction
    Explores the role of family therapy in recovery from mental illness or substance abuse. Explains how family therapy sessions are run and who conducts them, describes a typical session, and provides information on its effectiveness in recovery.

    For additional resources, please visit the SAMHSA Store.

Last Updated: 08/30/2022

Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs

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Misusing alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs can have both immediate and long-term health effects.

The misuse and abuse of alcohol, tobacco, illicit drugs, and prescription medications affect the health and well-being of millions of Americans. SAMHSA’s 2020 National Survey on Drug Use and Health reports that approximately 19.3 million people aged 18 or older had a substance use disorder in the past year.



  • In 2020, 50.0% of people aged 12 or older (or 138.5 million people) used alcohol in the past month (i.e., current alcohol users) (2020 NSDUH)
  • Among the 138.5 million people who were current alcohol users, 61. 6 million people (or 44.4%) were classified as binge drinkers and 17.7 million people (28.8% of current binge drinkers and 12.8% of current alcohol users) were classified as heavy drinkers (2020 NSDUH)
  • The percentage of people who were past month binge alcohol users was highest among young adults aged 18 to 25 (31.4%) compared with 22.9% of adults aged 26 or older and 4.1% of adolescents aged 12 to 17 (2020 NSDUH)
  • The 2019 National Survey on Drug Use and Health reports that 139.7 million Americans age 12 or older were past month alcohol users, 65.8 million people were binge drinkers in the past month, and 16 million were heavy drinkers in the past month
  • About 2.3 million adolescents aged 12 to 17 in 2019 drank alcohol in the past month, and 1.2 million of these adolescents binge drank in that period (2019 NSDUH)
  • Approximately 14.5 million people age 12 or older had an alcohol use disorder (2019 NSDUH)
  • Excessive alcohol use can increase a person’s risk of stroke, liver cirrhosis, alcoholic hepatitis, cancer, and other serious health conditions
  • Excessive alcohol use can also lead to risk-taking behavior, including driving while impaired. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that 29 people in the United States die in motor vehicle crashes that involve an alcohol-impaired driver daily


  • STOP Underage Drinking interagency portal - Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Prevention of Underage Drinking
  • Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Prevention of Underage Drinking
  • Talk. They Hear You.
  • Underage Drinking: Myths vs. Facts
  • Talking with your College-Bound Young Adult About Alcohol

Relevant links:

  • National Association of State Alcohol and Drug Abuse Directors
  • Department of Transportation Office of Drug & Alcohol Policy & Compliance
  • Alcohol Policy Information Systems Database (APIS)
  • National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism



  • In 2020, 20.7% of people aged 12 or older (or 57. 3 million people) used nicotine products (i.e., used tobacco products or vaped nicotine) in the past month (2020 NSDUH)
  • Among past month users of nicotine products, nearly two thirds of adolescents aged 12 to 17 (63.1%) vaped nicotine but did not use tobacco products. In contrast, 88.9% of past month nicotine product users aged 26 or older used only tobacco products (2020 NSDUH)
  • Data from the 2019 NSDUH reports that 58.1 million people were current (i.e., past month) tobacco users. Specifically, 45.9 million people aged 12 or older in 2019 were past month cigarette smokers (2019 NSDUH)
  • Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death, often leading to lung cancer, respiratory disorders, heart disease, stroke, and other serious illnesses. The CDC reports that cigarette smoking causes more than 480,000 deaths each year in the United States
  • The CDC’s Office on Smoking and Health reports that more than 16 million Americans are living with a disease caused by smoking cigarettes

Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use data:

  • Data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s 2020 National Youth Tobacco Survey.  Among both middle and high school students, current use of e-cigarettes declined from 2019 to 2020, reversing previous trends and returning current e-cigarette use to levels similar to those observed in 2018
  • E-cigarettes are not safe for youth, young adults, or pregnant women, especially because they contain nicotine and other chemicals


  • Tips for Teens: Tobacco
  • Tips for Teens: E-cigarettes
  • Implementing Tobacco Cessation Programs in Substance Use Disorder Treatment Settings
  • Synar Amendment Program


  • Truth Initiative
  • FDA Center for Tobacco Products
  • CDC Office on Smoking and Health
  • National Institute on Drug Abuse: Tobacco, Nicotine, and E-Cigarettes
  • National Institute on Drug Abuse: E-Cigarettes



  • Among people aged 12 or older in 2020, 3.4% (or 9.5 million people) misused opioids in the past year. Among the 9.5 million people who misused opioids in the past year, 9.3 million people misused prescription pain relievers and 902,000 people used heroin (2020 NSDUH)
  • An estimated 745,000 people had used heroin in the past year, based on 2019 NSDUH data
  • In 2019, there were 10.1 million people age 12 or older who misused opioids in the past year. The vast majority of people misused prescription pain relievers (2019 NSDUH)
  • An estimated 1.6 million people aged 12 or older had an opioid use disorder based on 2019 NSDUH data
  • Opioid use, specifically injection drug use, is a risk factor for contracting HIV, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. The CDC reports that people who inject drugs accounted for 9 percent of HIV diagnoses in the United States in 2016
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Understanding the Epidemic, an average of 128 Americans die every day from an opioid overdose


  • Medication-Assisted Treatment
  • Opioid Overdose Prevention Toolkit
  • TIP 63: Medications for Opioid Use Disorder
  • Use of Medication-Assisted Treatment for Opioid Use Disorder in Criminal Justice Settings
  • Opioid Use Disorder and Pregnancy
  • Clinical Guidance for Treating Pregnant and Parenting Women With Opioid Use Disorder and Their Infants
  • The Facts about Buprenorphine for Treatment of Opioid Addiction
  • Pregnancy Planning for Women Being Treated for Opioid Use Disorder
  • Tips for Teens: Opioids
  • Rural Opioid Technical Assistance Grants
  • Tribal Opioid Response Grants
  • Provider’s Clinical Support System - Medication Assisted Treatment Grant Program


  • National Institute on Drug Abuse: Opioids
  • National Institute on Drug Abuse: Heroin
  • HHS Prevent Opioid Abuse
  • Community Anti-Drug Coalitions of America
  • Addiction Technology Transfer Center (ATTC) Network
  • Prevention Technology Transfer Center (PTTC) Network



  • The percentage of people who used marijuana in the past year was highest among young adults aged 18 to 25 (34. 5%) compared with 16.3% of adults aged 26 or older and 10.1% of adolescents aged 12 to 17 (2020 NSDUH)
  • 2019 NSDUH data indicates that 48.2 million Americans aged 12 or older, 17.5 percent of the population, used marijuana in the past year
  • Approximately 4.8 million people aged 12 or older in 2019 had a marijuana use disorder in the past year (2019 NSDUH)
  • Marijuana can impair judgment and distort perception in the short term and can lead to memory impairment in the long term
  • Marijuana can have significant health effects on youth and pregnant women.


  • Know the Risks of Marijuana
  • Marijuana and Pregnancy
  • Tips for Teens: Marijuana

Relevant links:

  • National Institute on Drug Abuse: Marijuana
  • Addiction Technology Transfer Centers on Marijuana
  • CDC Marijuana and Public Health

Emerging Trends in Substance Misuse:

  • Methamphetamine—In 2019, NSDUH data show that approximately 2 million people used methamphetamine in the past year. Approximately 1 million people had a methamphetamine use disorder, which was higher than the percentage in 2016, but similar to the percentages in 2015 and 2018. The National Institute on Drug Abuse Data shows that overdose death rates involving methamphetamine have quadrupled from 2011 to 2017. Frequent meth use is associated with mood disturbances, hallucinations, and paranoia.
  • Cocaine—In 2019, NSDUH data show an estimated 5.5 million people aged 12 or older were past users of cocaine, including about 778,000 users of crack. The CDC reports that overdose deaths involving have increased by one-third from 2016 to 2017. In the short term, cocaine use can result in increased blood pressure, restlessness, and irritability. In the long term, severe medical complications of cocaine use include heart attacks, seizures, and abdominal pain.
  • Kratom—In 2019, NSDUH data show that about 825,000 people had used Kratom in the past month. Kratom is a tropical plant that grows naturally in Southeast Asia with leaves that can have psychotropic effects by affecting opioid brain receptors. It is currently unregulated and has risk of abuse and dependence. The National Institute on Drug Abuse reports that health effects of Kratom can include nausea, itching, seizures, and hallucinations.


  • Tips for Teens: Methamphetamine
  • Tips for Teens: Cocaine
  • National Institute on Drug Abuse

More SAMHSA publications on substance use prevention and treatment.

Last Updated: 04/27/2022

Drug addiction: methamphetamine — Phoenix Center

Methamphetamine is a powerful drug that belongs to psychostimulants. Commonly referred to as methamphetamine, "crystal", "ice", or "glass", it takes the form of a white, odorless, crystalline powder. To achieve a high, people smoke, sniff, ingest, or inject a drug. Methamphetamine causes intense but quickly fading euphoria, so people often use it several times in a row before experiencing a feeling of euphoria.

Methamphetamine achieves its effects through the release of a brain chemical known as dopamine. This release creates an intense feeling of pleasure and is highly addictive to drug . Methamphetamine has a very high narcogenicity, that is, in the shortest possible time, addiction to the substance occurs, cravings and an increase in the dose of the drug to achieve the effect of euphoria, therefore, the abusers need more and more of the drug each time to reach the desired maximum.

Short-term effects of methamphetamine use:

  • increased physical activity
  • palpitations
  • high blood pressure
  • insomnia
  • decreased appetite
  • euphoria

Long-term effects of methamphetamine use:

  • weight loss
  • propensity for cruelty and violence
  • insomnia
  • mood swings
  • dental problems
  • anxiety
  • paranoia
  • hallucinations
  • loss of memory

In addition to short and long term physical effects, methamphetamine use can lead to relationship, legal and financial problems. Drug addicts often break the law to get drugs, or lie to family members about their use, or steal money and valuables from family, friends, or work.

Because the effects of a drug can be so strong, it is incredibly difficult to stop its use without the help of a narcologist and a psychiatrist.

If you're not sure if a family member or friend is using methamphetamine, there are certain signs that may come to your attention:

  • Have you noticed changes in their appearance, such as problems with their skin or teeth?
  • Do they constantly touch their skin or hair?
  • Has the person lost a lot of weight or has no appetite?
  • People who use methamphetamine may also have angry outbursts or sudden mood changes, or they may also suddenly become paranoid—think they are being watched or followed.

Abuse or dependence on methamphetamine may occur in the setting of effective bipolar disorder schizoaffective disorder, personality disorder.

Treatment options for methamphetamine use include inpatient and outpatient drug treatment under the supervision of a psychiatrist and/or addiction specialist; individual or group psychotherapy, support groups, as well as psychotherapeutic work with co-dependents (family members of the dependent).

The first important step in treatment is drug detoxification. Because withdrawal symptoms can be so intense, a person may experience a relapse during this time. Mood stabilizers (normotimics) may be required. antipsychotics (in the presence of ideas of persecution) or antidepressants (depressions develop very often).

What needs to be done?

  • Pass urine for the determination of surfactants to the toxico-chemical laboratory.
  • It is necessary to seek the help of a narcologist and / or a psychiatrist - for a consultation, and if necessary - for examination and treatment. Primary correspondence consultation of a relative about the mental state of the addict and his behavior is possible.
  • As soon as possible, without hesitation, it is necessary to bring the addict himself to the reception. Recovery starts with voicing the problem and asking for help.
  • It is important to keep your home, car, and other areas free of all drugs and paraphernalia. Keeping these items can lead to a rapid relapse or jeopardize the healing process.
  • Recovery practices also require awareness of the people and places that facilitate drug use and distribution. Avoid people who use methamphetamine and any other drugs, and stay away from places where drugs were bought or once used.
  • After or during recovery, it is advisable for an addict to seek support from family and friends.

If you have a friend or family member who uses methamphetamine, remind them that you love them and support them in their recovery. Acknowledge their fears and concerns about recovery, and feel free to express your own concerns or observations about how drugs negatively affect other people's lives. Support the person who has made the decision to stop using drugs. However, the support must be psychologically correct. In progress of the 12-step program and psychotherapy, relatives will learn this.


Crystals, ice

Some types of drug addiction are provoked by the rapid development of the pharmaceutical industry. Pharmacists are constantly looking for new and effective drugs for the treatment of various diseases. Pharmacology is of interest not only to patients and doctors, some types of drugs have become widespread in the criminal environment.

Methamphetamine was developed and used as a powerful psychostimulant. But soon its detrimental effect on the cells and tissues of the body, the formation of a stable biochemical and psychological dependence was noted. Now methamphetamine is not used in traditional medicine and is listed as a prohibited drug.

Crystals - a drug

Netizens are increasingly asking search engines what kind of drug is called ice. Crystal methamphetamine in the criminal world is called crystals or ice. The first crystal form of methamphetamine was synthesized from ephedrine in 1919 year. After that, the drug was successfully used as a neurostimulator, optimizer of metabolic processes. The drug in the form of crystals became widespread in criminal circles after the war, when it was used as a pill of vigor and courage. The drug ice was banned from production by pharmaceutical companies, but continues to be synthesized in clandestine laboratories.

The drug action of methamphetamine explains why drug addicts love ice so much. What it is made of is known not only to professional pharmacists and pharmacists. Crime labs have established the production and sale of ice. What provokes the rapid spread of this type of drug addiction.

Treatment of drug addiction

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Drug ice.


The pharmacological action of the drug begins within a few seconds after taking a dose of the drug. The drug is rapidly absorbed through the mucous membranes and has a high bioavailability. Therefore, the maximum concentration of the drug in the blood plasma is monitored after 20-30 minutes. The duration of action depends on the dosage of ice taken, the individual characteristics of the addict, the experience of using the drug Crystals.

Ice has specific effects on the body:

  • hyperexcitability;
  • irritability;
  • aggressiveness;
  • sleep disorders;
  • dilated pupils, incorrect reaction to light;
  • palpitations;
  • shortness of breath;
  • vomiting, nausea;
  • convulsions
  • emotional instability;
  • weight loss, loss of appetite;
  • lack of coordination of movements.

The use of crystals leads to the formation of psycho-emotional and biochemical dependence. Without timely treatment, receptor resistance develops, which provokes the addict to increase the dosage. Without the intervention of an experienced narcologist, this condition leads to drug overdose and premature death.