What causes bpd disorder

Causes - Borderline personality disorder

There's no single cause of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and it's likely to be caused by a combination of factors.


Genes you inherit from your parents may make you more vulnerable to developing BPD.

A study found that if 1 identical twin had BPD, there was a 2-in-3 chance that the other identical twin would also have BPD.

However, these results have to be treated with caution, and there's no evidence of a gene for BPD.

Problem with brain chemicals

It's thought that many people with BPD have something wrong with the neurotransmitters in their brain, particularly serotonin.

Neurotransmitters are "messenger chemicals" used by your brain to transmit signals between brain cells.  Altered levels of serotonin have been linked to depression, aggression and difficulty controlling destructive urges.

Problem with brain development

Researchers have used MRI to study the brains of people with BPD. MRI scans use strong magnetic fields and radio waves to produce a detailed image of the inside of the body.

The scans revealed that in many people with BPD, 3 parts of the brain were either smaller than expected or had unusual levels of activity. These parts were:

  • the amygdala – which plays an important role in regulating emotions, especially the more "negative" emotions, such as fear, aggression and anxiety
  • the hippocampus – which helps regulate behaviour and self-control
  • the orbitofrontal cortex – which is involved in planning and decision making

Problems with these parts of the brain may well contribute to symptoms of BPD.

The development of these parts of the brain is affected by your early upbringing. These parts of your brain are also responsible for mood regulation, which may account for some of the problems people with BPD have in close relationships.

Environmental factors

A number of environmental factors seem to be common and widespread among people with BPD. These include:

  • being a victim of emotional, physical or sexual abuse
  • being exposed to long-term fear or distress as a child
  • being neglected by 1 or both parents
  • growing up with another family member who had a serious mental health condition, such as bipolar disorder or a drink or drug misuse problem

Page last reviewed: 17 July 2019
Next review due: 17 July 2022

Borderline Personality Disorder: Causes, Symptoms & Treatment


Borderline personality disorder is a mental health condition marked by extreme mood fluctuations, instability in interpersonal relationships and impulsivity.

What is borderline personality disorder (BPD)?

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a mental health condition marked by extreme mood fluctuations, instability in interpersonal relationships and impulsivity.

People with BPD have an intense fear of abandonment and have trouble regulating their emotions, especially anger. They also tend to show impulsive and dangerous behaviors, such as reckless driving and threatening self-harm. All of these behaviors make it difficult for them to maintain relationships.

Borderline personality disorder is one of a group of conditions called “Cluster B” personality disorders, which involve dramatic and erratic behaviors. Personality disorders are chronic (long-term) dysfunctional behavior patterns that are inflexible, prevalent and lead to social issues and distress.

Many people who live with borderline personality disorder don't know they have it and may not realize there’s a healthier way to behave and relate to others.

What is the difference between borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder?

While bipolar disorder is also characterized by wide fluctuations in mood and behavior, it’s distinct from borderline personality disorder (BPD).

In BPD, mood and behavior change rapidly in response to significant stress, especially when interacting with other people, whereas in bipolar disorder, moods are more sustained and less reactive. People with bipolar disorder also have significant changes in energy and activity, unlike those with BPD.

Who does borderline personality disorder affect?

Most personality disorders begin in the teen years when your personality further develops and matures. As a result, almost all people diagnosed with borderline personality disorder are above the age of 18.

Although anyone can develop BPD, it’s more common if you have a family history of BPD. People with other mental health conditions, such as anxiety, depression or eating disorders, are also at higher risk.

Nearly 75% of people diagnosed with BPD are people assigned female at birth (AFAB). Research suggests that people assigned male at birth (AMAB) may be equally affected by BPD, but they may be misdiagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or depression.

How common is borderline personality disorder?

Borderline personality disorder is relatively rare. Approximately 1.4% of the adult U.S. population has BPD.

Symptoms and Causes

What are the signs and symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD)?

Signs and symptoms of borderline personality disorder usually appear in your late teenage years or early adulthood. A troubling event or stressful experience can trigger symptoms or make them worse.

Over time, symptoms usually decrease and may go away completely.

Symptoms can range from manageable to very severe and can include any combination of the following:

  • Fear of abandonment: It’s common for people with BPD to feel uncomfortable being alone. When people with BPD feel that they’re being abandoned or neglected, they feel intense fear or anger. They might track their loved ones’ whereabouts or stop them from leaving. Or they might push people away before getting too close to avoid rejection.
  • Unstable, intense relationships: People with BPD find it challenging to keep healthy personal relationships because they tend to change their views of others abruptly and dramatically. They can go from idealizing others to devaluing them quickly and vice versa. Their friendships, marriages and relationships with family members are often chaotic and unstable.
  • Unstable self-image or sense of self: People with BPD often have a distorted or unclear self-image and often feel guilty or ashamed and see themselves as “bad.” They may also abruptly and dramatically change their self-image, shown by suddenly changing their goals, opinions, careers or friends. They also tend to sabotage their own progress. For instance, they may fail a test on purpose, ruin relationships or get fired from a job.
  • Rapid mood changes: People with BPD may experience sudden changes in how they feel about others, themselves and the world around them. Irrational emotions — including uncontrollable anger, fear, anxiety, hatred, sadness and love — change frequently and suddenly. These swings usually only last a few hours and rarely more than a few days.
  • Impulsive and dangerous behavior: Episodes of reckless driving, fighting, gambling, substance use, binge eating and/or unsafe sexual activity are common among people with BPD.
  • Repeated self-harm or suicidal behavior: People with BPD may cut, burn or injure themselves (self-injury) or threaten to do so. They may also have suicidal thoughts. These self-destructive acts are usually triggered by rejection, possible abandonment or disappointment in a caregiver or lover.
  • Persistent feelings of emptiness: Many people with BPD feel sad, bored, unfulfilled or “empty.” Feelings of worthlessness and self-loathing are common, too.
  • Anger management issues: People with BPD have difficulty controlling their anger and often become intensely angry. They may express their anger with biting sarcasm, bitterness or angry tirades. These episodes are often followed by shame and guilt.
  • Temporary paranoid thoughts: Dissociative episodes, paranoid thoughts and sometimes hallucinations may be triggered by extreme stress, usually fear of abandonment. These symptoms are temporary and usually not severe enough to be considered a separate disorder.

Not everyone with borderline personality disorder experiences all of these symptoms. The severity, frequency and duration of symptoms are unique to each person.

What causes borderline personality disorder?

Healthcare providers believe BPD results from a combination of factors, including:

  • Childhood abuse and trauma: Up to 70% of people with BPD have experienced sexual, emotional or physical abuse as a child. Maternal separation, poor maternal attachment, inappropriate family boundaries and parental substance use disorder are also associated with BPD.
  • Genetics: Studies show that borderline personality disorder runs in families. If you have a family history of BPD, you’re more likely — but not guaranteed — to develop the condition.
  • Brain changes: In people with BPD, the parts of their brain that control emotion and behavior don’t communicate properly. These problems affect the way their brain works.

Diagnosis and Tests

How is borderline personality disorder diagnosed?

Personality continues to evolve throughout child and adolescent development. Because of this, healthcare providers don’t typically diagnose someone with borderline personality disorder until after the age of 18. Occasionally, a person younger than 18 may be diagnosed with BPD if symptoms are significant and last at least a year.

Personality disorders, including borderline personality disorder, can be difficult to diagnose, as most people with a personality disorder lack insight into their disruptive behavior and thought patterns.

When they do seek help, it’s often due to conditions such as anxiety or depression as a result of the problems created by their personality disorder, such as divorce or lost relationships, not the disorder itself.

A licensed mental health professional — such as a psychiatrist, psychologist or clinical social worker — can diagnose borderline personality disorder based on the diagnostic criteria for BPD in the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.

They do so by performing a thorough interview and having conversations about symptoms. They ask questions that’ll shed light on:

  • Personal medical history and family medical history, especially histories of mental health conditions.
  • Previous work history.
  • Impulse control.

Mental health professionals often work with the person’s family and friends to collect more insight into their behaviors and history.

Management and Treatment

How is borderline personality disorder treated?

BPD historically has been challenging to treat. But with newer, evidence-based treatment, many people with borderline personality disorder experience fewer and less severe symptoms, improved functioning and better quality of life.

But effective treatment takes time, patience and commitment. Treatment may include psychotherapy (talk therapy), medications or both.

Your healthcare provider may recommend a short-term hospital stay if you’re very distressed or at risk of harming yourself or others. During your stay, your healthcare provider will work with you to develop a treatment plan.

People with borderline personality disorder often have other mental health conditions, including:

  • Mood disorders (80% to 96% of people with BPD).
  • Anxiety disorders (88%).
  • Substance use disorder (64%).
  • Eating disorders (53%).
  • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (10% to 30%).
  • Bipolar disorder (15%).
  • Somatoform disorders (10%).

If they have a co-existing condition, they’ll also need treatment for it.

Psychotherapy treatment for BPD

Psychotherapy (talk therapy) is the treatment of choice for borderline personality disorder. The goal of treatment is to help you uncover the motivations and fears associated with your thoughts and behavior and to help you learn to relate to others more positively.

Types of therapy that can help treat BPD include:

  • Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT): This type of therapy was developed specifically for people with BPD. DBT focuses on helping you accept the reality of your life and your behaviors, as well as helping you learn to change your life, including unhelpful behaviors. It teaches skills to help you control intense emotions, reduce self-destructive behaviors and improve relationships.
  • Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT): This is a structured, goal-oriented type of therapy. Your therapist or psychologist helps you take a close look at your thoughts and emotions. You’ll come to understand how your thoughts affect your actions. Through CBT, you can unlearn negative thoughts and behaviors and learn to adopt healthier thinking patterns and habits.
  • Group therapy: This is a type of psychotherapy in which a group of people meets to describe and discuss their problems together under the supervision of a therapist or psychologist. Group therapy may help people with BPD to interact with others more positively and express themselves effectively.
Medications for BPD

Because the benefits of prescription medication for borderline personality disorder are unclear, healthcare providers typically don’t prescribe medications as the main treatment for BPD.

But in some cases, a psychiatrist may recommend medications to treat specific symptoms or co-occurring mental health conditions. Medications can treat anxiety and depression, regulate mood swings or help control impulsive behavior. Antipsychotic (neuroleptic) drugs help some people with BPD.


Can borderline personality disorder be prevented?

Unfortunately, there’s no way to prevent borderline personality disorder.

BPD is often inherited (passed through families), which means you have an increased risk of developing the condition if you have a family history of BPD. Ask your healthcare provider how to recognize signs of the disorder so you can get treatment as early as possible.

Outlook / Prognosis

What is the prognosis (outlook) for borderline personality disorder?

Most of the time, BPD symptoms gradually decrease with age. Some people’s symptoms disappear in their 40s. With the right treatment, many people with BPD learn to manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.

Without treatment, people with borderline personality disorder have an increased risk of the following:

  • Substance use disorder and alcohol use disorder.
  • Depression.
  • Self-harm.
  • Suicide.

The risk of suicide in people with BPD is 40 times that of the general population. About 8% to 10% of people with BPD die by suicide.

Many people with untreated BPD also experience unstable or chaotic personal relationships and have trouble keeping a job. They have an increased risk of divorce, estrangement from family members and rocky friendships. Legal and financial problems are also common.

Living With

How can I help someone with borderline personality disorder?

If you know someone who lives with borderline personality disorder, here are some ways you can help them:

  • Take time to learn about the BPD to understand what your loved one is experiencing.
  • Encourage your loved one to seek treatment for BPD and ask about family therapy if they’re a relative of yours.
  • Offer emotional support, understanding and patience. Change can be difficult and frightening to people with BPD, but their symptoms can improve over time with treatment.
  • Seek therapy for yourself if you’re experiencing significant stress or symptoms of mental health conditions, such as anxiety or depression. Choose a different therapist from the person your loved one is seeing.

People with BPD have a significantly higher rate of self-harming and suicidal behavior than the general population.

People with BPD who are thinking of harming themselves or attempting suicide need help right away.

If you or someone you know is in immediate distress or thinking about hurting themselves, call the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline toll-free at 1.800.273.TALK (8255).

A note from Cleveland Clinic

It’s important to remember that borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a mental health condition. As with all mental health conditions, seeking help as soon as symptoms appear can help decrease the disruptions to life. Mental health professionals can offer treatment plans that can help people with BPD manage their thoughts and behaviors.

The family members and loved ones of people with borderline personality disorder often experience stress, depression, grief and isolation. It’s also important to take care of your mental health and seek help if you’re experiencing these symptoms.

Borderline personality disorder

Olga Vladimirovna Plotnikova


Borderline personality disorder (hereinafter referred to as BPD) is characterized by increased anxiety, emotional instability, and a tendency to impulsive actions. All these components greatly affect the quality of life. In addition, antisocial behavior, self-harm and an increased risk of suicide are common in borderline personality disorder.


Genetics BPD has an evident hereditary factor. It would be more correct to say - predisposition. Like schizophrenia, BPD does not have a single gene that is responsible for the development of the disorder, but the influence of genetics is undeniable.

Neurophysiology or how does it work? Numerous neuroimaging studies (fMRI) have compared patients with BPD and healthy controls. Anomalies were found: a decrease in the level of serotonin, a decrease in the volume of the hippocampus, amygdala and other areas of the medial temporal lobe of the brain. The behavior of patients and their symptoms are a product of the special structure of their brain. nine0005

Environmental influences There are a lot of myths here. And, despite the appearance of neuroimaging data, for some reason they are still alive. The most common myth is the influence of childhood trauma on the occurrence of BPD. Indeed, studies of people with BPD show that they have a history of domestic violence, but again, not everyone is without exception. A case of childhood trauma can only provoke and awaken a hereditary predisposition to BPD, but this is not the cause of its development. It's all about the structure of the brain. nine0005

Why is this important? When we talk about diabetes, we don't think that willpower can change insulin levels. BPD is not a whim and cannot be cured by “education”, you need to learn to live with it.

Diagnostic criteria for borderline personality disorder:

  1. Tendency to make excessive efforts to avoid the real or imagined fate of being abandoned.
  2. Tendency to engage in intense, tense, and unstable relationships characterized by alternating extremes of idealization and devaluation. nine0044
  3. Identity disorder: marked and persistent instability of the image or feeling of the self.
  4. Impulsivity in at least two areas that involve self-harm (eg, spending money, substance abuse, traffic violations, habitual overeating).
  5. Recurrent suicidal behavior, hints or threats of suicide, acts of self-harm.
  6. Affective instability, very changeable mood (for example, periods of intense irritability or anxiety, usually lasting from several hours to several days). nine0044
  7. Constantly experienced feeling of emptiness.
  8. Inappropriate manifestations of intense anger or difficulty in controlling anger (eg, frequent irritability.
  9. Paranoid ideas.

How to treat?

The first line is the psycho-education of the patient and his relatives. This is very important, as it helps to understand what is happening with the patient and outline the tactics of further actions. nine0005

Schema therapy patients learn how to properly respond to their symptoms and further control them.

Medications help to manage the severity of symptoms and give strength to continue to fight BPD.
Special considerations to consider when selecting therapy

-Second generation antipsychotics should be used in patients with thought disorder, paranoia, identity disorder.

- In patients with mood disorders, outbursts of aggression, mood stabilizers (normotimics) should be used, and not antidepressants. nine0005


BPD is an anomaly in the structure of the brain, not bad upbringing and a complex character.

BPD must be correctly diagnosed using the most up-to-date criteria.

Self-harm is an important but not the only criterion for diagnosis. Self-cutting in adolescence can be a way to get attention. But! In the presence of self-cuts, one should not scold the teenager, but understand the reasons.

BPD symptoms can be brought into permanent remission and learned to live with. The only proven way is to motivate the patient himself. nine0005

People with BPD need love and understanding, but it is very difficult to deal with them, so relatives and relatives may need specialist help.

Borderline personality disorder: what it is, symptoms and signs of BPD

Borderline personality disorder is characterized by emotional instability, impulsive behavior and low self-control. Forbes Life figured out what causes this disease, how to diagnose borderline personality disorder and how to help people who have experienced it

Mental personality disorders differ from other types of disorders in their intensity. They cannot be treated like an ordinary illness, as a temporary mental disorder, because personality disorders affect a set of personal characteristics formed in childhood. There are a number of problems with diagnosing such diseases: their symptoms are quite individual, although there are a number of common signs. For borderline personality disorder (BPD), these may include difficulties with self-image, extreme mood swings, risky behavior, and self-harm. The good news is that personality disorders can still be managed—there is a cure. nine0005

Now officially: BPD is a diagnosis

Borderline personality disorder is one of ten types of personality disorders in modern psychotherapy, which is expressed in problems of awareness and formation of personal identity. Psychologist, Gestalt therapist Valentin Oskin notes that this mental illness is associated with strong, uncontrollable and often painful emotions that lead to a distorted sense of self and unstable interpersonal relationships. nine0005

People with BPD are reverse solipsists: they are convinced of the inviolability of the world around them, but doubt the reality of their own existence - their image of the inner “I” is so mobile and unstable. In addition to depersonalization, "borderguards" are characterized by impulsiveness, dependence on other people, unstable behavior, a tendency to a chaotic life, and even a need to harm themselves and injure themselves. "Border guards" are characterized by chronic suicidality: 75% of people with BPD try to commit suicide, of which about 10% die as a result of suicide. Moreover, a third of all completed suicides were committed by those suffering from borderline personality disorder. nine0005

Despite the statistics, until 2022 the diagnosis of BPD in Russia could not be officially diagnosed - borderline personality disorder in psychiatry was defined as a disease only in foreign classifications of diseases. It was often called impulsive personality disorder or generally diagnosed as sluggish schizophrenia: the diseases are similar in symptoms, among the signs of BPD there are no hallucinations and delusions. BPD also resembles bipolar affective disorder (up to 40% of "border guards" get an erroneous diagnosis of bipolar disorder), only periods of depressive and elated mood are replaced with bipolar disorder less often. The transition to the International Classification of Diseases of the 11th revision will finally allow doctors to make an accurate diagnosis for Russian citizens and prescribe the appropriate treatment. nine0005

Diagnosis is not a sentence, the boundary between the norm and pathology is very flexible: “Each of us has borderline responses. For some, they are deeply hidden and appear only in crises, traumas, stressful situations. And for some, life as such is stressful, and therefore the ways of responding turn into what psychologists could call the borderline organization of the personality,” notes Irina Mlodik, Candidate of Psychological Sciences, in the book “House of Cards. Psychotherapeutic assistance to clients with borderline disorders. nine0005

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Ghost hints

Most people with BPD are unaware of their diagnosis and do not seek medical attention. And it's not just that BPD in psychology does not have a clear definition. The disease does not allow you to objectively assess your mental state and understand that the indomitable monster inside is raging not because of the permanent retrograde Mercury and the fatal force of circumstances. The absence of obvious mental abnormalities like hallucinations makes it possible to attribute emotional behavior to character traits. Colleagues, friends and relatives often believe that behind the disgusting behavior of such a person is hysteria and selfishness. Therefore, systematic treatment of borderline personality disorder begins in most cases after a suicide attempt. nine0005

The most striking and obvious sign of borderline personality disorder is a craving for auto-aggression, or self-harm. This is not only the infliction of bodily harm (cuts, blows or burns), but also the intention to deprive oneself of sleep, nutrition. This practice is not necessarily a consequence of suicidal behavior: physical pain serves as a way to drown out inner pain, to switch attention from uncontrollable emotions to those that have become the result of an effort of will. The problem is that self-harm is either carefully hidden by people with BPD because it is not normal in our culture, or they perceive it as controlled behavior (eg, exhausting workouts in the gym, striving to do work tasks in their free time). nine0005

Borderline personality disorder may be accompanied by alcohol, drug, gambling and a number of other diseases. “For example, depression, anxiety disorders, eating disorders are common in people with BPD. Often, a history of PTSD or CPTSD is found, ”notes Valentin Oskin. That is, constant panic attacks or overeating in the evenings can be a sign of more serious mental disorders than just a reaction to stress.

Mind, a British mental health resource, highlights the following symptoms that may indicate borderline personality disorder. If they last long enough and have a negative impact on your life, it makes sense to consult a psychotherapist or psychiatrist:

  • Fear of loneliness. You constantly worry about people leaving you and are ready to do everything to prevent this from happening.
  • Impulsivity and affectivity. You are overcome by strong emotions that last from several hours to several days and can change quickly (for example, from feelings of happiness and confidence to sudden depression and sadness). This is especially evident in a state of anger, which is difficult to control. In a state of severe stress, you may also experience paranoia or dissociation (as if everything is not happening to you, but to someone else). nine0044
  • Depersonalization. There is no clear idea of ​​who you really are: the sense of self and behavior changes radically depending on where and with whom you are. As an option - a constant feeling of emptiness inside, boredom, misunderstanding of one's true desires and values.
  • Communication problems. It is very difficult for you to create and maintain stable relationships, you are prone to masochistic communication, cyclically idealize and devalue even the closest people, and do not always correctly interpret the motives of the actions of others. nine0044

“Borderline personality disorder can manifest itself in a wide range of signs,” says Valentin Oskin, “the symptoms of borderline personality disorder are most fully described in the DSM-5 and ICD-11 reference books. If grouped together, the symptoms will reflect a lack of control in the emotional, behavioral, cognitive spheres, as well as a distortion of the sense of self and a violation of interpersonal relationships. According to the psychologist, it is extremely difficult for people with BPD to break off relationships, even those that need to be broken off. Instead, they may go to great lengths to keep the people who matter to them around them. nine0005

At the same time, “border guards” tend to involuntarily throw out their emotions on those who are dear to them: “Often this ends with interruption of communication, because not everyone is able to endure such a bolt from the blue. And even more so if this thunder rumbles once every couple of months, ”Ksenia Ivanenko notes in her Telegram channel, where she describes her personal experience in dealing with BPD.

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To determine if you are at risk, you can take several tests for borderline personality disorder, which are publicly available. It is important to understand that the result obtained is not a final diagnosis, it can only be made by a qualified doctor after analyzing the symptoms. nine0005

The Root of the Problem: What Causes Borderline Personality Disorder

Effective treatment for most mental illnesses requires the cause to be identified. Borderline personality disorder is problematic in that it arises from a number of factors and affects the basic components of the personality. That is, there is simply no specific reason that triggers the PRL processes. “While BPD is one of the most researched personality disorders, there is no consensus on what exactly causes it. Severe stresses experienced by children and adolescents, such as neglect, prolonged painful separation, loss of a parent, violence, are common in people with BPD. There is also evidence of a genetic predisposition: among first-line relatives of a person with borderline disorder, the likelihood of developing a similar disorder is 3-5 times higher when compared with the general population,” notes Valentin Oskin. nine0005

Any person can be at risk, especially if he is going through a difficult stressful situation. It is known that this diagnosis is made more often in women than in men, and that in almost all cases of BPD it is driven by a deep emotional shock. Most researchers agree that the development of BPD is promoted by a combination of two groups of factors:

  • Stress and traumatic life situations. For example, sexual, physical or emotional abuse, persistent feelings of fear or abandonment in childhood, family problems, repressed feelings of anger, anxiety, and sadness. Stress or trauma in adulthood can trigger the onset of borderline personality disorder. nine0044
  • Genetic predisposition and environmental influences. The disease can be inherited, but more often borderline occurs as a pattern of behavior unconsciously borrowed from parents or close people, reactions to external stimuli.

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No reason to break ties

If ​​there is a “border guard” in your environment, you can build constructive communication with him, although this will require a lot of effort. “It is important to understand that a person with borderline personality disorder takes criticism extremely hard, for him it sounds like rejection, which he is terribly afraid of. At the same time, emotional jumps do not allow him to get the desired intimacy. Relations with such a person are usually like a swing between the poles "I love you, don't leave me - I hate you, I'll leave you." It is important to understand that with borderline personality disorder it is impossible to consciously change your behavior, thinking, emotional reactions and response patterns to certain situations, ”says Valentin Oskin. nine0005

Many "border guards" live with a constant oppressive feeling of guilt, they feel broken, bad and unworthy of normal communication, which they badly need. They are unable to correctly read the reactions of others and the motives of their actions. This determines their strange behavior and repels potential partners and friends. Often, people with borderline personality disorder have a Favorite Person - a person on whom the "borderguard" is extremely dependent and who replaces not only everyone around him, but also himself. If this person is busy or there is a conflict with him, the “border guard” literally collapses the world: he drowns in a storm of emotions, reflects on death and looks for thousands of reasons why he was rejected. nine0005

There are a number of rules that psychologists have developed for those who seek to communicate as "border guards", minimizing chaos, conflicts and the possibility of a tragic denouement: could end in disaster.

  • Designate your personal boundaries, which are unacceptable to cross. For the “border guard”, formal frameworks are important that will help contain his emotional storm and not pour it out on others. nine0044
  • Do not take words spoken in a fit of emotion as a confession in a true relationship. This is a consequence of the fact that in people with BPD, periods of deification/devaluation change very quickly.
  • Explain rationally the motives of one's actions. A person with borderline personality disorder will need your presence 24/7 and perceive certain actions as dismissive towards him. Take care of yourself: specify the time you spend separately, and try to logically explain why you are doing this or that and do not intend to devalue or leave the “border guard”. nine0044

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    How to get rid of BPD

    The main way to deal with borderline personality disorder is psychotherapy, in which work is done on the accompanying manifestations of an unstable mental state (depression, addictions, eating disorders, etc.) and syndromes (it is often necessary to treat alcohol withdrawal symptoms). syndrome). This is a long and complicated process, but statistics show that 70% of the “border guards” get rid of the main symptoms during therapy within six years, and remission occurs in a third of patients after two years. nine0005

    “In therapy, people with BPD are primarily trained in emotional control, responsibility, and interpersonal skills. Dialectico-behavioral psychotherapy, a specially developed method for the treatment of BPD based on cognitive behavioral therapy, is well suited for this. No less effective is schema therapy, which also has special developments for the treatment of BPD. In the course of treatment, pharmacotherapy can also be prescribed, for example, for the treatment of associated depression or anxiety disorder, ”says Valentin Oskin. nine0005

    Comprehensive treatment may include the following therapies: