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A complete search of the internet has found these results:

to better understand is the most popular phrase on the web.

More popular!

to better understand

298,000,000 results on the web

Some examples from the web:

  • Jul 11, 2013 ... Has anyone given you grief over splitting an infinitive in your writing? If so, they would claim "to better understand" is wrong because the ...
  • Feb 17, 2022 ... A team of researchers from music, chemistry and computer science is using sound to better understand biochemical processes such as the . ..
  • In order to better understand” is a proper grammatical phrase. It is correct to use it. You can also say 'in order to understand better' or 'for better ...
  • Deciphering the bat virome catalog to better understand the ecological diversity of bat viruses and the bat origin of emerging infectious diseases.
  • Oct 25, 2018 ... The missing middles: segmenting enterprises to better understand their financial needs. Small and growing businesses (SGBs) contribute to ...

For better understanding how

201,000 results on the web

Some examples from the web:

  • Activities shall focus on identifying resilience levels through observations, monitoring and modelling as well as provide for a better understanding on how communities perceive and respond to climate change and seismic and volcanic hazards.
  • Providing for a better understanding on how communities perceive and respond to climate change and seismic and volcanic hazards
  • The Commission is ready to simplify the wording of Article 5 for better understanding of this provision.
  • In order for better understanding, we have asked students of Canadian origin to introduce you to their culture and...
  • "It is time to acknowledge this", urged the EP President, calling for better understanding of their situation and saying we can fight discrimination through education.
  • Free note on the data that can be published as methodological notes/additional explanations for better understanding the provided data.
  • To make for simplification and for better understanding on the part of consumers, existing laws should accordingly be consolidated in order to unify the consumer protection cooperation arrangements applying between Member States.
  • This mutually beneficial synergy will contribute to the development of closer links and lay the foundations for better understanding and cooperation in the future between the European Union and the participating countries.
  • The tools developed for better understanding and reporting of topical issues covers mainly:
  • It is high time this situation changed - familiarity with the EU allows for better understanding and closer cooperation and it is a prerequisite to building good and sustainable relations.
  • "It is time to acknowledge this", urged the EP President, calling for better understanding of their situation and saying we can fight discrimination through education.
  • In addition to the need for better understanding, we should add, in this field, that nothing can develop positively if we politicians do not find some real credibility.
  • The Commission considers the report as a very useful tool for a better understanding of these sensitive matters.
  • Keep on reading this section for a better understanding of the Temporary Collection.
  • Language skills are important for effective learning, intercultural communication and a better understanding of the host country culture.
  • The Scoreboard is central to the aim of the strategy of better understanding how the internal market is working for our consumers - to measure the outcome of the internal market for consumers.
  • In my opinion, the main motive for better cooperation lies in a better understanding by national parliaments, governments, and SAIs that more effective use and control of EU funds reflects their own aspirations and interests.
  • whereas there is a need for better understanding of the interdependence between economic, social, environmental, cultural and educational policies,
  • 'enhancing scientific knowledge for a better understanding of our planet' and
  • Since in a democracy it is also important for everyone to understand the principles of technology and judge it correctly, better understanding of scientific processes is nothing short of vital.


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7 Ways to Better Understand and Be Understood

“The most basic of all human needs is the need to understand and be understood.” – Ralph Nichols

Being human, we all have certain basic needs. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs outlines them quite well and encompasses all that we generally think about when it comes to what we need.

Yet one of our most basic needs, the need to understand and be understood, seldom gets much attention.

It should.

Without the ability to understand what others say or the meaning behind their words, we can miss important cues, lose out on opportunities, fail to see changes in time to appropriately react, and go off in a totally different direction. Worse, if we lack understanding, we’re more prone to selfish acts than helping others.

Similarly, without others being able to understand us, we’re often left confused, frustrated, overlooked, angry, misinterpreted, and taken for granted. We might even feel sad and depressed, particularly if being misunderstood is a constant and we do nothing to help remedy the situation.

How can we work on improving both our ability to understand others and make it easier for them to understand us? Much of the following recommendations follow a commonsense approach, yet there may be some new angles to consider.

  1. Think first, then speak. Start by thinking about what you’re going to say — well before you say it. If this is difficult, employ the breathing in and out technique. Take one or two deep breaths (you can do this without seeming too obvious) while you consider how you want to frame your words. What’s the purpose for your conversation? Do you need to inform, request information, ask for assistance, offer sympathy, encouragement or counsel? When you’re clear why you need to say something, your message will likely be better received and understood.
  2. Avoid jargon. Just because certain words are in constant use in the media, among friends, by politicians, or on social networks does not mean that they’re conducive to a better understanding in conversations or discussions. In fact, jargon and clichés tend to produce just the opposite effect. Most people tune out, thinking they’ve heard this before and know where it’s going. Any hope you have of having them understand your point of view or become engaged in what you’re saying rapidly diminishes. Find better descriptive words and phrases, use active verbs and keep sentences short. Not only will others start to listen to you, they’ll also absorb more of what you say.
  3. Say less, mean more. Another practical suggestion is to say fewer words, but choose them wisely. People tend to lose concentration or interest when a conversation drags on. Get to the point as quickly as possible. Besides, if you earn a reputation as someone who’s accurate and precise, who doesn’t bloviate or waste others’ time with empty words, people will listen to you more and likely better understand what you say when you speak.
  4. Mean what you say. Most people have an innate ability to detect phoniness when others speak. Your words are only part of the communication process. Tone, body language, emphasis on words or lack thereof, facial expressions, breathing, flushing, sweating and other physical signs also convey emotion, conviction, or a disconnect between what’s being said and what the speaker means or believes. Make it a point to speak the truth according to the values you hold dear and what you believe wholeheartedly.
  5. Don’t belabor the point. Far too many of us blather on, perhaps thinking erroneously that more is better, that continuing to belabor the point will somehow make it clearer. In most cases, it won’t. Exceptions may be if you’re a professor explaining some complicated theory to beginner students, or a surgeon discussing the possible risks and benefits of a proposed surgical procedure. The point is to know when it’s time to quit talking. Once you’ve delivered your message, take a breath. Allow time for the listener to digest and process what you’ve said and to respond accordingly. Conversation is a two-way exchange, not just one way.
  6. Learn how to listen. Of vital importance is that you develop your listening skills. Instead of anticipating what you’re going to say and tuning out the speaker, keep your focus and concentration on what he or she is saying. If you want to develop better understanding of others, you must hear what they’re saying. So, be an active listener. This is not only respectful, it’s necessary to the process of understanding and being understood.
  7. Use appropriate non-verbal communication. In addition, recognize that understanding others sometimes means responding in non-verbal ways. Instead of a lecture on what he or she did wrong, maybe what’s really needed is a hug or a sympathetic look. Actions are also expressions of understanding and this is a technique that you can work on to improve both your understanding of others and theirs of you.

Science and art for a better understanding

The purpose of the information dialogue is to establish the essence, its common understanding. This makes it possible to clarify the positions of the parties and prevent possible misunderstandings and even conflicts. The art of asking questions plays a decisive role here. “I didn’t say anything to him, I just answered. ” Think about this statement of Mikhail Zoshchenko. In dialogue there is always the danger of being misunderstood or misunderstanding the interlocutor.

Try not to say anything, but simply answer the essence of the received message. If you are told that the weather is fine outside, then you should not specify the air temperature to the nearest degree. Or to the question "How are you?" start a lengthy confession about personal problems. Try to always perceive the essence of the message: the desire to keep up small talk in the first example, or just a polite attention to you - in the second.

Clarification of the essence is the way to resolve conflicts. How often we argue over trifles, not noticing the main thing - this very essence. Sometimes emotions, sometimes the inability to correctly formulate the message, lead to misunderstanding, rejection of the message and conflict. I am far from thinking that in this way it is possible to eliminate all conflict situations. But it is certainly possible to reduce the conflict of communication.

The eminent physicist Niels Bohr said that the opposite of a fact is a lie, but the opposite of an outstanding truth can be another outstanding truth. Let's remember this. With the help of questions and answers, we get to the bottom of the position of each of the parties in order to better understand the foundations on which it is based. It is possible not to share the principles, but it is impossible not to respect them. And then we are on the way with the great Voltaire: "I do not agree with what you say, but I will defend your right to say it to the last."

The indisputable truth - you talk less, you make less mistakes. The more concise and simple the message is, the less it causes a desire to ask clarifying questions, clarify incomprehensible aspects, and therefore, the more likely it is to perceive it without distortion. There is, however, another side of the problem, which Albert Einstein pointed out with his characteristic laconism: one should simplify as much as possible, but no more.

In the modern world, saturated with information, entropy increases catastrophically. This leads to the transformation of information flows simply into the background, information noise.

Two questions become extremely relevant in such conditions:

  1. How to extract the message you need from the information flow?
  2. How to put yours in the message flow so that the recipient notices and highlights it?

Many times I have done this training exercise in the classroom: one participant had to perceive messages being transmitted aloud by several senders at the same time. As long as the recipient did not receive a clear answer to the question of what exactly he should perceive from the flow of information, he failed. Know exactly what information you need.

It is equally important to find the correct answer to the second question. And then the clearer, the more concise, the clearer your message is, the sharper you touch the segment of information recipients you need, the more chances you have for success.

A striking example of this is successful advertising messages that resonate in the minds of the right segment of consumers: as soon as you hear “peak beer”, you immediately imagine a steamed bottle of Slavutich beer against the backdrop of somersaulting dolphins. Be concise and clearly position your message.

A clear understanding of the essence of the message is the fourth beacon that allows you to better navigate in the face of communication storms.

The Japanese will never deceive you, but they will never tell the truth either.

This statement was given to me by my colleague as an example characterizing the different attitude to the process of information exchange in different cultures. It is important to understand that this is nothing more than a display of specific features inherent in representatives of certain cultures.

You can talk a lot about this topic. Let us dwell only on some aspects of intercultural communications. Take, for example, conflict. If you communicate with a person for whom relationships play a dominant role, then his attitude towards conflict will be fundamentally different than that of a person who is more result-oriented. That is why the Americans see conflict as a way to resolve conflicts, while the Japanese, for example, see it as a threat to the destruction of relationships.

Or another example - position argumentation. For a representative of Eastern culture, it is not so much the logical sequence of your arguments that is important, but the feelings and emotions that he experiences for you and your message. On the contrary, for a representative of Western society, it is desirable to avoid emotional coloring: for this, a presentation format, diagrams and graphs, and logical evidence are used. In no way do I want to say that the Japanese do not calculate their decisions, and the Americans act like soulless robots. No. We are talking only about the main trends that give an idea of ​​some of the features of communications in various cultural environments.

Your eastern counterpart nods his head respectfully as he listens to your message. Don't be fooled. This may not be a sign of consent, but just a sign of politeness. The biggest lie is the misunderstood truth, says the proverb.

Be vigilant - remember the fourth beacon of multicultural communications.

Man has two ears and only one tongue.

The most important and least valued in the process of communication is the ability to listen to the interlocutor. Not to hear, but to listen. It would seem that we have been doing this almost from the first days of our lives. Managers spend up to 80% of their time in meetings, listening to their bosses or reports from subordinates. But no, not everything is as simple as it seems to us. Many difficulties are determined by physiological reasons. For example, the speed of perception by ear is 2–2.5 times higher than the speed of pronunciation. And this helps to disperse the attention of the listener: remember how it happened that you still continue to ask a question, and the listeners are already answering it.

Second. Any message is a stimulus that causes not one, but more than a hundred different reactions in the human body. While the sender, as a rule, counts on only one. What does this mean? That all other reactions must be inhibited. And it takes a lot of energy. We will not delve into the physiological jungle, we will only note that this is precisely why listening is a very time-consuming and exhausting process. Add to this the absence of most special listening skills - and one can only wonder how we are still able to hear anything!

What to do? - you ask. Improve your abilities as a so-called active listener. How often, instead of listening and listening to the interlocutor, we hear our thoughts about the subject of communication. Here are five tools that can help you develop this ability. Accustom yourself to using them regularly, and you will soon experience the joy of understanding others better.

Concentration - focus your attention only on the interlocutor, try to perceive the essence of the messages coming to you. Do not respond to other stimuli. Try to structure the message by highlighting certain sequences, setting priorities, comparing with previous messages.

Empathy - show your understanding, show interest, confirm your ability to understand the interlocutor's logic. Use both verbal channels and appropriate facial expressions and gestures for this. Try to take the position of the interlocutor and consider the situation through his eyes.

Asking questions - clarify vague wording, clarify incomprehensible places in messages. Turn communication into a dialogue that supports your interlocutor and helps you hear him correctly.

Self-control - keep yourself in control, do not let emotions take over the mind. Do not allow yourself immediate reactions, try to minimize the influence of your emotional context when perceiving the message.

Comprehension - perceive not only the linguistic component of the message (the meaning of words), but also the paralinguistic one (intonation, tempo and timbre of speech, clarity of pronunciation). Compare them with the norm for your interlocutor and feel the reason for the differences.

To help you focus on improving your active listening skills, here's a little test for you. In addition to the overall result, it will also provide an opportunity to take a closer look at your listening style, paying attention to certain questions on the test.

So, if you have a high potential as a listener, then the fifth beacon of communication is at your disposal!

It is good to live in the East…

Traditionally, two – in some cases diametrically opposed – examples of organizational relations are considered: Eastern and Western types. Obviously, this does not exhaust the entire palette of possible cases of communication, however, this makes it possible to consider the extreme manifestations of possible cultural characteristics.

In the Eastern type of relationship, due to a particularly careful attitude to interaction at the interpersonal level, conflicts acquire a different meaning. The common thing here is only the recognition of the fact of their practical inevitability. However, unlike Western business culture, Eastern business culture is based on the desire to avoid direct conflict or avoid it: American culture, for example, sees conflict as a way to resolve contradictions, while Chinese culture, for example, sees it as a way to destroy relationships. Therefore, in the first case, the conflict is considered an ordinary event, and in the second - an extraordinary event.

Are there any rules that can help you be better prepared for negotiations with representatives of such organizations?

Let's point out some, but let's call them not rules, but rather commandments:

  • If possible, try to maximize the level of trust. To do this, it is useful to stock up on letters of recommendation, to find a person who can make a protégé. Avoid immediate contacts and excessive acceleration of events.
  • A face-to-face meeting is critical: failures at this stage can be fatal. When preparing it, it is important to follow the procedures and protocol. It is very important to prepare draft documents, and first of all, about the participants of the meeting, indicating professional and personal (hobbies, for example) information.
  • Be patient - this is not fast food, but an oriental ceremony. Be prepared to listen and accept objections. Watch for context, which in vague terms is easy to miss. Do not be deceived by the silence of the interlocutor: this may not indicate agreement, but a polite expectation of your turn to speak.
  • Restrain your emotions, especially in case of a negative outcome.

It is impossible not to notice representatives of organizations with a Western type of organizational relations. They are punctual (sometimes to the point of fanaticism) in the regulations, they sacredly honor the clarity and rationality of the presentation, they strive to classify their arguments and the arguments of the interlocutor, and also clearly define priorities. The preparedness of such people for communication is impressive: a list of issues for discussion is prepared in advance, the duration and sequence of their discussion are planned, alternatives are evaluated and solutions are determined. Their energy is directed solely towards obtaining a result, and if during the discussion it becomes obvious that the achievement of goals is moving towards the horizon, such people quickly lose interest in what is happening - it simply ceases to fit into their system of priorities.

In the case of establishing communication with people who are predominantly result-oriented, you should be prepared for truly dizzying (compared to Eastern slowness and prudence) speeds: if your proposal fits into the framework of already worked out schemes, you will immediately be offered a draft contract, and a priori there will be to assume that this project, in fact, is its final version - there are very few chances to customize legal relations.

However, in the event of a departure from the usual schemes, a representative of such an organization will be ready to take responsibility for making changes to the documents: the hallmark of such people is the courage to maximize the degree of freedom provided.

Unexpected proposals and solutions should also be expected from them. Familiarization with some commandments can be helpful for the success of this type of communication. Strive to clarify as much as possible the list of issues to be considered: the clarity and clarity of the agenda of the meeting is critical to its success. Agree on the goal and expected (for both parties) results, set a time frame, and be sure to allow time for discussion. Determine responsibility for preparing a summary of the meeting: it is very important that decisions are documented. • Remember that in case of expected disagreements, you should clearly outline your point of view.

“Sometimes in a dispute it is important not so much to defend one's opinion as to have one,” said André Maurois.

The vagueness of your positions in the case of communication with results-oriented people does not play in your favor: your interlocutor is more likely to prefer your clear, but contrary to his vision, position than the absence of one at all. Send all supporting materials to your interlocutor in advance. This contributes to a more productive use of time during the meeting. Moreover, some inconsistencies may be corrected during the preparation of these materials.

Try to restrain your emotions and not react to the emotional coloring of your interlocutor: since for him the result prevails over the relationship, he may not control himself when discussing conflict situations. You should not take such a reaction to heart, and even more so - to yourself: remember that such people simply consider conflict as a way to resolve problematic issues


Returning to Rousseau, I want to note that you are unlikely to be delighted with a love letter written by a result-oriented person: it will resemble a presentation in which key points are highlighted, priorities are set and ratings are set. Therefore, do not expect sensual outpourings from communicating with them - their main strength is in the logical structure and clarity of thinking.

7 editions for a better understanding of film art

It is difficult to find people in the world who have not watched a single film in their life. However, with the deepening of knowledge in the field of cinematography, what you see on the screen becomes clearer every time: you notice new details, understand the reasons for using certain techniques, and you can make out the subtext of the dialogues in the film. If you decide to immerse yourself in the study of this area of ​​art, then we offer a selection where we have collected books about cinema for everyone.

Why is it better to watch movies in the original, how are capitalism and cinema connected, and what psychological types of characters are used in movies? This is what publications from our new collection tell about it. In it, both beginners and advanced film researchers will find books for themselves.

Collection "Eisenstein for the 21st century", 2020

Collection "Eisenstein for the 21st century"

Sergei Eisenstein is a great Soviet theater and film director, screenwriter, doctor of art history and teacher. His cult historical film Battleship Potemkin has been repeatedly recognized as one of the best films ever made in international polls of critics, film critics and viewers.

Naum Kleiman, together with the Garage Museum of Contemporary Art program, compiled a collection dedicated to Sergei Eisenstein's 120th birthday. The texts in the collection were written by specialists from Russia, the USA and other countries. Researchers have covered the topics of Eisenstein's creativity and personality outside the boundaries of cinema: dialectics, painting and cinema, the psychotechnics of art, pedology in film theory, and much more.

Buy: ChitayGorod

Anton Dolin How to watch a movie, 2019

Anton Dolin How to watch a movie, 2019

Anton Dolin is a Russian film critic, journalist, writer and editor-in-chief of the Art of Cinema magazine.

The critic wrote the book for children, so it explains the basics in simple terms. Reading the text, you will learn about the history of cinema, how to watch it, why we do it and how to see the subtext in the film (it is said that Anton Dolin tested the book on his own children before publication, and they liked it!). However, the fact that a work was intended for children does not mean that it is not suitable for adults. Also, the book is good for all beginners. Particularly useful are short lists of films "to try" for different genres and historical periods.

Read: LitRes
Buy: ReadGorod

Igor Belenky “History of Cinema. Filming, film industry, film art”, 2019

Igor Belenky “The history of cinema. Filming, film industry, film art”, 2019

Igor Belenky is a film historian, teacher of screen art at the Humanitarian Film and Television Institute.

"History of Cinema" is a book for those who want to deepen their basic knowledge in the field of cinema. The author succinctly describes the development of cinema, tells how it tried to become art, how sound appeared and how cinema went beyond the limits of the short format. Igor Belenky answers these questions by showing the connection between history and changes in cinema: he analyzes films in relation to their time and place of creation and reveals unusual techniques and features of editing. The author also cites his own lists of film geniuses, explains why they deserved this title and describes their contribution to cinema. In the last chapter, Belenky recommends literature on the topic, which would be useful to read.

Read: LitRes
Buy: ReadGorod

Robert McKee Million Dollar Story: A Workshop for Scriptwriters, Writers and More, 2012

Robert McKee Million Dollar Story: A Workshop for Screenwriters, Writers and more, 2012

Robert McKee is an American author, lecturer, story writer, and screenwriting teacher.

The Million Dollar Story is what the author calls a primer for screenwriters, and indeed for anyone who wants to write and tell stories convincingly. From McKee's text, you will learn about the art of storytelling, its elements, the dramatic structure of the text, the archetypes of the characters, as well as what problems a screenwriter may face and how to solve them. The peculiarity of the "History" is that McKee illustrates all the theoretical facts with examples, and also analyzes the films according to scenario logic, explaining why this or that technique was used and what dictated the behavior of the hero.

Read: LitRes
Buy: ChitayGorod

Tatiana Salakhieva-Talal "Psychology in cinema", 2019

Tatiana Salakhieva-Talal "Psychology in cinema", 2019

Tatyana Salakhieva-Talalsht, practicing psychologist and teacher MIGTIK. Tatyana also teaches the author's course "Psychology for Screenwriters" at MoscowFilmSchool.

In the book you will learn how cinema is revealed from the point of view of psychology and psychoanalysis, how it expresses the psychological trends of the time, and what are the psychological foundations for creating a script and a character, types of characters, their change and internal conflicts. Tatyana Salakhieva-Talal believes that knowledge of psychology is important in real and relevant stories of film scripts. The psychologist considers cinema through Freud's structural model of the psyche, Jung's analytical psychology and Truby's evolution of myth, using examples from films and TV shows.

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Alexey Tsvetkov "Cinemarxism", 2019

Alexey Tsvetkov "Cinemarxism", 2019

Alexey Tsvetkov is a poet, writer and political activist.

In the first part of the book, the author writes about the theoretical aspects of the Marxist understanding of cinema and the Marxist theory of culture. Tsvetkov concludes that cinema today can be viewed simultaneously as a mass social ritual, as a form of ideology, and as a source of income. The second part contains reviews of films that Tsvetkov analyzes through Marxism. For example, the writer reveals the concept of "Spirited Away" as a problem of people being corrupted by advertising and their dependence on employers. In addition, Tsvetkov raises many topical issues: inequality, revolution, consumer society, power structure. Despite the variety of political and sociological terms, the author writes without complications, gives many examples and makes references to films.

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Gilles Deleuze Cinema, 2013

Gilles Deleuze Cinema, 2013

Gilles Deleuze was a French postmodernist philosopher. One of the main themes of his research was time.

Deleuze's book is a philosophical study of the film phenomenon. The original work was written in two volumes in different years (1983 and 1985). In the essay, the researcher is based on the work "Matter and Memory" by another philosopher - Henri Bergson. In Matter and Memory, Bergson develops the theory of images upon which Deleuze builds his work. Gilles Deleuze sees cinema as a unity of two images, after which both of his volumes are named: “image-movement” and “image-time”. In the “image-movement”, the philosopher concludes that montage techniques (for example, close-ups or changing angles) have more influence on understanding how human perception and thinking works than theoretical attempts to explain cinema. In “image-time”, Deleuze shows that the understanding of cinema cannot be reduced to the speech of the characters (moreover, he insists that the language of cinema does not exist), but its non-verbal images can be considered. Cinema for the researcher is an instrument of philosophical logic. Deleuze insists that cinema is not a way of conveying information (emotional, symbolic, technical), but reflects the thinking of a collective "viewer" (not every single person!), whose perception is shaped by cinema. The text can be difficult for the unprepared reader.

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Additional Film Books by Section

More Beginner Books:

  • by Adam Boardman. How movies are made. History of Cinema
  • Ian Smith. Major in the history of cinema. Films, genres, techniques, directions
  • Philip Kemp. Movie. World History
  • Edward Ross. How cinema works. Theory and History of Cinema

Books about how movies are made:

  • Andrei Tarkovsky. Directing Lessons
  • Danila Kuznetsov. Film language. How to Understand Movies and Enjoy Watching
  • Sidney Lumet. How cinema is made
  • Stephen Katz. Frame by frame. From conception to film

About deep understanding of various aspects in cinema:

  • Alexander Pavlov. Shameful pleasure. Philosophical and socio-political interpretations of mass cinema
  • Alexander Talal. Myth and life in cinema. Meanings and tools of dramatic language
  • Vadim Rudnev. Cinema Psychology
  • Dmitry Olshansky. Scenes of sexual life. Psychoanalysis and semiotics of theater and cinema
  • Kamill Akhmetov. Cinema as a universal language
  • Linda Seger. Hidden Meaning: Making Movie Subtext
  • Mikhail Zhabsky. Sociology of Cinema
  • Oleg Aronson. Metakino
  • Pavel Rodkin. Film politics. 13 experiments on the hermeneutics of modern cinema
  • Roman Perelstein. The conflict of "internal" and "external" man in cinematography
  • Thomas Elsesser and Malte Hagener. Cinema theory. Eye, emotions, body

About the history of cinema:

  • Adam Boardman. How movies are made. History of Cinema
  • Georges Sadoul. General Film History
  • Mikhail Trofimenkov. Cinema and history. 100 Most Talked About Historical Movies
  • Nikolai Nikulin: From the Lumiere brothers to Hollywood blockbusters. The main thing in the history of cinema

About specific time periods of cinema:

  • Anton Dolin. Catch XXI: Essays on New Age Cinema
  • Brian Raftery. The best year in cinema history. How 1999 Changed Everything
  • Valery Fomin. History of Russian cinematography 1941-1968.
  • Vasily Novikov. Cinema of the 21st century. Impact of virtual innovations
  • Evgeny Margolit. Living and dead. Notes on the history of Soviet cinema in the 1920s-1960s

Books about genres and categories of films: