Supplements for anxiety and adhd

10 Supplements and Vitamins for ADHD Symptom Control

What ADHD Supplements Improve Symptoms?

Research shows that medication does a good job of managing ADHD symptoms in many children and adults. Still, the thought of starting your eight-year-old son or daughter on a drug, no matter how effective it might be, causes lots of hand-wringing and soul-searching in parents before they agree to do it. There are potential side effects to be considered, along with the fact that ADHD medications don’t work the same way for every child in managing symptoms. So some parents look for other natural remedies for ADHD, such as nutrition, exercise, and supplements, to help their child deal with symptoms.

It is important to understand what a supplement is. A nutritional supplement provides basic nutrients for optimal health and function that you may not be getting from your food. Supplements include vitamins, minerals, proteins, and fats. I don’t include herbal or botanical ingredients, such as ginkgo or St. John’s wort, in the supplement category. Botanicals are plant-based products that are not necessarily nutrients, but which may have positive effects on health and function.

Now let’s look at the individual ADHD supplements I recommend. Every natural remedy for ADHD mentioned here has some research to support its effectiveness in improving some symptoms.

[People Also Ask: How Should I Treat My Child’s ADHD?]

If possible, I’d consult a physician to help you incorporate supplements into your treatment plan. Managing supplements and other integrative treatments requires expertise. It is difficult for a family to do this on their own.

ADHD Supplement: Omega-3 Fatty Acids

Usually given in the form of fish oil, omega-3s are probably the best-researched supplement for ADHD. Numerous studies, including two meta-analyses, have found benefit in the area of hyperactivity, attention, or impulsivity.

[Get This Free Resource: Everyday Foods Filled with Omega-3s]

Finding the best omega 3 supplement is a different story. Despite all the studies on omega-3s, questions remain about the optimal dose and how to give it. The important omega-3 fatty acids are EPA and DHA, which are listed on most product labels. I recommend a total of 1,000 mg. of EPA plus DHA (add the two together) for smaller children, 2,000 mg. for adolescents, and 1,500 mg. for those in between. There should be 1.5 to 2 times as much EPA as DHA. Most omega-3 gummies don’t provide these higher levels, so your best option is to give your child capsules or a liquid. For children who are vegetarian, algae oil is available, but it requires large doses to get enough EPA and DHA.

A related supplement is phosphatidylserine. This is a type of molecule derived from fatty acids that plays an important role in cell signaling. A couple of small studies indicate it might be helpful for ADHD. My clinical experience is that the benefits have not been impressive. It can be taken on its own or in conjunction with a fish oil supplement.

ADHD Supplement: Zinc

I recommend zinc for children with ADHD. The mineral is not as well researched as omega-3s and iron, but there is some positive research. One study showed that taking zinc with a psychostimulant caused a nearly 40 percent reduction in the amount of the stimulant required to function at optimal levels. Other studies have shown benefits for ADHD symptoms in general. Zinc levels can be measured in the blood, but it is safe to give 20-25 mg. of zinc daily to your child without first doing a blood test.

ADHD Supplement: Vitamin D

Many American children have abnormally low levels of vitamin D. Newer research shows that children with ADHD have lower vitamin D levels than children without the condition. One study showed that expectant mothers with low vitamin D levels had a higher likelihood of their children having ADHD. There are no studies showing that giving vitamin D to children with ADHD improves their symptoms. Nevertheless, I would check vitamin D levels and supplement if the levels are low or even borderline low.

ADHD Supplement: Iron

Low levels of the mineral iron can be a significant problem in children with ADHD. Studies have shown that iron is crucial for normal brain function, and that treating with supplemental iron can improve ADHD symptoms.

Before giving an iron supplement to your child, it is important to measure the iron levels in your child’s blood. When doctors measure these in children, they test for hemoglobin and hematocrit — the level of iron in red blood cells. These readings are usually normal in children with ADHD. I recommend that doctors also check the ferritin level, which measures circulating iron. This is often low, or borderline low, in kids with ADHD. One study showed that the average ferritin level in ADHD children was 22 compared with 44 in non-ADHD children.

I recommend supplementing with iron if a child has a ferritin level under 30. It is important to use a chelated iron product, which reduces the problem of constipation or stomachaches. I usually begin with 30-40 mg. of elemental iron a day, and measure ferritin levels again in three to six months.

Multivitamin/Multimineral for ADHD

It is important that children with ADHD have adequate amounts of a wide range of vitamins and minerals, but until recently, there has been little research suggesting that taking a multivitamin/multimineral was helpful for ADHD. Research indicates that a specific multivitamin/multimineral combination is effective for kids who have ADHD and emotional dysregulation, often displayed by oppositional children.

Daily Essential Nutrients is made by Hardy Nutritionals. In one study, the micronutrients in this formulation reduced impairment and improved inattention, emotional regulation, and aggression. DEN did not improve hyperactive/impulsive symptoms. The downside is that it is expensive, and a child has to take six pills a day. It’s possible that other multivitamins have similar effects, but they have not been well-studied.

ADHD Supplement: Magnesium

This mineral won’t directly improve attention, but it can calm hyperactivity and agitation, which compromise attention. I find magnesium helpful for children who have a “rebound effect” after their stimulant medication wears off. A child can safely take 100-300 mg. of elemental magnesium twice daily in the form of magnesium glycinate, citrate, or chelate. The citrate form tends to lead to loose stools.

ADHD Supplement: Inositol

Inositol is found in very small amounts in many foods. In concentrated doses, it helps to counter agitation and anxiety. I recommend 12-18 grams a day divided into two or three doses for adults. The dose for kids would be calculated based on their mass.

ADHD Supplement: Ginkgo Biloba

This herb has been used to improve cognitive function for thousands of years. A couple of small studies have shown that it may be helpful in children with ADHD. A recent double-blind randomized study looked at adding ginkgo to a stimulant that children were already taking. Some children took ginkgo plus a stimulant, while others took a placebo and a stimulant. Those who took the ginkgo had a 35 percent better response rate in terms of improving attention. It had no effect on hyperactivity or impulsivity. I use 60 mg., twice a day, for children.

Bacopa and gotu kola, which are part of Ayurvedic medicine (the traditional medicine of India), have both been used to treat ADHD, but western medicine has done little research on them.

One herb, St. John’s wort, is often recommended for children with ADHD, but research shows that it helps with mood disorders, not ADHD. A study on using St. John’s wort to treat ADHD reached the same conclusion: It did not help. This study was discussed in the June 2008 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association. View the study abstract.

The ABCs of ADHD Supplements

Among the many questions parents ask me when thinking about natural supplements for ADHD are: How can supplements help? Are they a substitute for ADHD medication, or can they be used together? How long do they take to work? Can they have side effects?

  1. How do supplements improve attention, impulsivity, or hyperactivity? It is helpful to understand how supplements are researched. The most common method is to give either the supplement being studied or a placebo to a person, and see if ADHD symptoms improve. Researchers measure this by looking at ADHD surveys or checklists, filled out by teachers and parents. In most cases, the research shows improvements in attention and focus, hyperactivity, or impulsivity, or all of them. It is hard to predict the effect any single supplement will have on a child.
  2. Will supplements improve symptoms as much as ADHD medication? For the most part, no. ADHD-friendly supplements are helpful, but they do not have the immediate and powerful effect on ADHD symptoms that medication does. It is hard to quantify the effectiveness of these supplements compared to medication. It is worth noting that supplements in general have far fewer side effects than medication, and less potential for severe side effects. I use supplements as part of an integrative treatment plan that includes interventions related to school, parenting, sleep, and exercise.
  3. How long will it take to see results after starting a supplement? This varies, depending on the supplement and the child. Some families have told me that they saw improvement within days of starting fish oil; other families didn’t see any improvement after a month. I recommend waiting a few months before deciding whether or not supplements are helpful.
  4. Do supplements have side effects? Some supplements have side effects, but they are milder and less common than the side effects of ADHD stimulants. Iron, for instance, may cause constipation or abdominal pain. It is important to notice any symptoms that occur after starting one or more supplements and consult with your physician.

[Free Resource Here: Guide to Natural ADHD Treatment Options]

Sandy Newmark, M.D., is a member of the ADDitude ADHD Medical Review Panel.

How to Treat ADHD in Children: Next Questions

  1. What ADHD medications are used to treat children?
  2. Is ADHD medication right for my child?
  3. What are common side effects associated with ADHD medication?
  4. What natural treatments help kids with ADHD?
    • What are the most effective natural ADHD treatments for kids?
    • What foods can help control ADHD symptoms?
    • What vitamins and supplements should my child take?
    • Does brain training help with ADHD?
    • How much and what type of exercise helps kids with ADHD?
    • What types of therapy help patients with ADHD?
  5. What if the medication stops working?
  6. How can I find an ADHD specialist near me?

Thank you for reading ADDitude. To support our mission of providing ADHD education and support, please consider subscribing. Your readership and support help make our content and outreach possible. Thank you.

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Natural ADHD Remedies: Supplements, Vitamins, Foods

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends treating ADHD in children and adolescents with FDA-approved medications, plus parent training in behavior modification and behavioral classroom interventions. Likewise, research confirms that “stimulant medications are most effective, and combined medication and psychosocial treatment is the most beneficial treatment option for most adult patients with ADHD.” Still, many individuals seek to augment their ADHD treatment plans with natural therapies ranging from nutrition and vitamins and herbs and fish oil.

“Parents and adults see me either because the ADHD medication isn’t doing the job, or they want more improvement and can’t increase the dosage without increasing side effects,” says Richard Brown, M. D., associate clinical professor of psychiatry at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, and co-author of the recent book How to Use Herbs, Nutrients, and Yoga in Mental Health Care.

Here are 10 of the most popular natural ADHD remedies — including foods, ADHD supplements, and herbs — and research findings for each suggesting whether adding them to your treatment plan might unlock better focus, attention, and motivation.

Keep in mind that all ADHD treatment decisions should be made in consultation and coordination with a licensed medical provider.

Foods for ADHD Focus

Poor nutrition can cause a child or adult with ADHD to become distracted, impulsive, and restless. The right foods, on the other hand, can lessen those symptoms.

Protein for ADHD Control

Foods rich in protein — lean beef, pork, poultry, fish, eggs, beans, nuts, soy, and dairy products — are used by the body to make neurotransmitters, the chemicals released by brain cells to communicate with each other. Protein can prevent surges in blood sugar, which increase hyperactivity.

“Because the body makes brain-awakening neurotransmitters when you eat protein, start your day with a breakfast that includes it,” says Laura Stevens, M.S., a nutritionist at Purdue University and author of 12 Effective Ways to Help Your ADD/ADHD Child: Drug-Free Alternatives for Attention-Deficit Disorders. “Don’t stop there. Look for ways to slip in lean protein during the day, as well.”

[Get This Free Guide to Natural ADHD Treatment Options]

Balanced Meals for ADHD

Edward Hallowell, M.D., coauthor of the best-selling Driven to Distraction: Recognizing and Coping with Attention Deficit Disorder from Childhood Through Adulthood, recommends dividing your lunch and dinner plate in the following way: Half of the plate should be filled with fruits and vegetables, one fourth with a protein, and the remaining fourth with a carbohydrate, preferably one rich in fiber — whole wheat pasta, whole grain bread, brown rice.

This combination of foods will minimize swings in behavior caused by hunger or by a shortfall of a particular nutrient. Fiber prevents blood-sugar levels from spiking and plummeting, which can increase inattention in people with ADD.

Dopamine-Boosting ADHD Supplements and Vitamins

“Many people’s daily meals are deficient in key vitamins and minerals that may improve attention and alertness,” says Brown. Supplements meant to boost dopamine levels (fish oil, viatmin D, etc.)  can often fill in the nutritional gaps.

Multivitamins/Multiminerals for ADHD

If your child is a picky eater or eats lots of take-out food, he won’t get the daily recommended value of vitamins and minerals. A daily multivitamin/multimineral will ensure that he does, no matter how finicky he is.

  • To purchase: Hero’s Yummi Bears Multi-Vitamin & Mineral are free of artificial colors and flavors, which increase hyperactivity in some children with ADHD.

[Get This Free Download: What to Eat — And Avoid — to Improve ADHD Symptoms]

B Vitamins for ADHD

Studies1 suggest that giving children who have low levels of B vitamins a supplement improved IQ scores (by 16 points) and reduced aggression and antisocial behavior. “Vitamin B-6 seems to increase the brain’s levels of dopamine, which improves alertness,” says Brown.

  • To purchase: Drugstore chains offer inexpensive high-quality, store-brand B-vitamin formulations. Many of the studies on vitamin B and ADHD used a Swiss formulation called Bio-Strath (available at It comes in pill and liquid forms.)

Zinc, Iron, and Magnesium for ADHD

Zinc synthesizes dopamine and augments the effects of methylphenidate2. Low levels of this mineral correlate with inattention.

Iron is also necessary for making dopamine. In one small study3, ferritin levels (a measure of iron stores) were low in 84 percent of ADHD children compared to 18 percent of the control group. Low iron levels correlate with cognitive deficits and severe ADHD.

“Adequate levels of magnesium have a calming effect on the brain,” says Brown. While food intake is the safest way to increase mineral levels, a multivitamin/multimineral with iron will ensure that you or your child will get the daily reference value (DRV) of all three.

Omega-3s for ADHD

One study suggested that a subgroup of boys with ADHD are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids compared with those who have no symptoms of the condition.

Another study4 showed that omega-3s-found in cold-water, fatty fish, such as sardines, tuna, and salmon-tend to break down more readily in the bodies of patients with ADHD than in those without the condition. “Individuals with ADHD who have low blood levels of omega-3s will show the biggest improvement in mental focus and cognitive function,” says Brown. Talk to your physician about the best omega 3 supplement for you or your child.

  • To purchase: Ned Hallowell recommends supplements from OmegaBrite and Zone Labs.
  • Brown also recommends Nordic Naturals. If your child has trouble swallowing pills, try the Barleans Omega Swirl smoothie.

Ginkgo and Ginseng for ADHD

“Most children and adults derive moderate benefits from the vitamin-mineral approach,” says Brown. “Those with more significant ADHD may need stronger stuff — namely, herbs.”

“These herbs are cognitive activators,” says Brown. They act like stimulants without the side effects. Typically, adults and children who take ginkgo and ginseng improve on ADHD rating scales, and are less impulsive and distractible. Asian ginseng may overstimulate younger children. If this happens to your child, switch to American ginseng.

Pycnogenol for Attention

An extract made from French maritime pine bark, pycnogenol was found to improve hyperactivity and sharpen attention, concentration, and visual-motor coordination in students after one month, based on standardized measures and teacher and parent ratings5.

The herb pycnogenol is also rich in polyphenols, antioxidants that protect brain cells from free radicals. “The first double-blind study on the herb was published in 2006, confirming its benefits,” says Brown. “Larger randomized trials, though, are needed.”

  • To purchase: Pycnogenol is available at Nature’s Best.

Rhodiola Rosea for ADHD

Made from a plant of the same name that grows in the Arctic, this herb can improve alertness, attention, and accuracy. It can be too stimulating for young children, and is occasionally beneficial in children ages eight to 12. It is most useful, says Brown, for students in junior high, high school, and college, who have to complete long papers and spend hours reading.

  • To purchase: Rhodiola rosea is available from Ameriden International and Swedish Herbal Institute-ProActive.

[CBD Oil for ADHD? The Facts About This Popular Natural Treatment]

Thank you for reading ADDitude. To support our mission of providing ADHD education and support, please consider subscribing. Your readership and support help make our content and outreach possible. Thank you.

1 Mousain-Bosc, M., M. Roche, A. Polge, D. Pradal-Prat, J. Rapin, and J. P. Bali. “Improvement of Neurobehavioral Disorders in Children Supplemented with Magnesium-Vitamin B6.Magnesium Research, vol. 19, no. 1, 2006, pp. 53-62.
2 Akhondzadeh, Shahin, Mohammad-Reza Mohammadi, and Mojgan Khademi. “Zinc Sulfate as an Adjunct to Methylphenidate for the Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children: A Double Blind and Randomized Trial [ISRCTN64132371].” BMC Psychiatry, vol. 4, 2004, pp. 9.
3 Konofal, Eric, Michel Lecendreux, Isabelle Arnulf, and Marie-Christine Mouren. “Iron Deficiency in Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.” Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, vol. 158, no. 12, 2004, pp. 1113.
4 Young, Genevieve, and Julie Conquer. “Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Neuropsychiatric Disorders.” Reproduction Nutrition Development, vol. 45, no. 1, 2005, pp. 1–28., doi:10.1051/rnd:2005001.
5 Trebatická, Jana, Soňa Kopasová, Zuzana Hradečná, Kamil Činovský, Igor Škodáček, Ján Šuba, Jana Muchová, Ingrid Žitňanová, Iweta Waczulíková, Peter Rohdewald, and Zdeňka Ďuračková. “Treatment of ADHD with French Maritime Pine Bark Extract, Pycnogenol®.” European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 15, no. 6, 2006, pp. 329-35.

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ADHD: Tips for Parents - MAMARADA

If a child is struggling to cope with Attention Deficit Hypermobility Syndrome (ADHD), there are several ways parents can support them.

How to help a child with ADHD?

Approximately one in three people diagnosed with ADHD as a child will grow out of the condition and will not need treatment in adulthood. Children who receive specialized treatment tailored to their needs can often successfully learn strategies for coping with existing problems, improve academic performance, relationships with others, and coping life skills.

Diagnosis of ADHD requires examination by a specialist (child psychiatrist or pediatrician). The doctor evaluates the child's behavior patterns by observing, testing, and receiving reports on his behavior at home and at school. The information obtained can form the basis for an effective treatment plan so that the child can reach his full potential in life.

Key steps for parents of a child with ADHD

Here are the key approaches that can really make a difference:

  1. Contact your doctor or school if you are concerned that your child may have ADHD. An established diagnosis can help a child start receiving treatment and psychological help on time.

  2. ADHD is a family problem. Make sure that all family members understand what is happening to the child, accept it not as a disaster, but as a common illness that the child needs help with, and try to maintain a balance of attention in the family.

  3. Avoid giving your child with ADHD a "bad reputation" in the family.

  4. It is important to maintain your personal boundaries and discipline and not tolerate bad behavior such as disobedience, swearing or violence.

  5. Make sure you help your child lead a healthy lifestyle through a balanced diet, regular physical activity and sleep patterns.

  6. Give the child simple and clear instructions or requests - talk to him from a short distance, looking into his eyes, speak slowly and calmly.

  7. Praise your child when he has done what is required, however small (but be careful not to overpraise).

  8. Write lists of useful rules and post them somewhere in plain sight (refrigerator).

  9. Break up the child's required time at the table, such as meals and homework, into small intervals, say 15-20 minutes.

  10. Avoid feeding your child food additives and dyes, as there is scientific evidence that children with ADHD are especially sensitive to them.

  11. Find out about local parenting programs and support groups that can really help you cope better.

How do I deal with challenging behavior in a child with ADHD?

Children behave differently at different times. Feeling upset, sad, irritated, disappointed and many other emotions are a normal and healthy part of their lives. Many children go through the stages of setting and testing boundaries and are likely to be too provocative. This is especially true for children with ADHD. Sometimes younger children have tantrums, while older children may sometimes scream, rage, or even lash out at their parents or any obstacles or objects.

When we talk about "challenging behavior" we mean behavior that is persistent and difficult to manage for both the parent and the child. This includes things like:

  • Many outbursts of anger

  • Regular yelling, swearing and arguing

  • Aggressive actions: hitting, biting or kicking

  • Damage to things in the home or school

  • Malevolence or intimidation towards other family members or children

  • Constant trouble at school

The child's constant challenging behavior is tiring and demoralizing. In families, this often results in everyone feeling less positive and comfortable.

The child's behavior is a message about how he feels. When a child goes beyond acceptable limits, in order to understand the reasons for what is happening, you can imagine an iceberg. Complicated behavior is the tip, but there could probably be a range of emotions lurking underneath the surface. By starting to talk with the child, parents can learn more about how he feels and what is happening to him.

How to talk to a difficult child?
  1. Find the right time and place to talk. It will be easier for your child to speak if you start a conversation during an activity.

  2. Make it clear to the child that the problem lies in his behavior, and not in him as a person. Let your child know that it's okay to feel how they feel, whether it's sad, angry, anxious, or whatever, and that you can work together to find new ways to deal with these feelings.

  3. Explain why you don't like challenging behavior so that he understands. For example, you might say that while it's okay to be angry, it hurts other people when they hit.

  4. Be curious, empathetic and open-minded. Focus on listening to the child and trying to understand things from their point of view.

  5. Use simple phrases such as “I notice you yell a lot”, “I think something is upsetting you”, “I am worried that you are not happy” and “I need you to know that you can talk to me about what's going on."

  6. Reassure your child that you love him and want to help him feel happier and learn to enjoy life.

How else can you help a child with defiant behavior?
  1. Set clear boundaries and routines and stick to them as much as possible. You can do this by having a family agreement that includes such things as time limits for watching TV or playing computer games, meal times, and times to get out of bed and go to bed.

  2. Consequence warning. Your child may respond better if you communicate the consequences so they have the opportunity to change their behavior. After explaining the consequences, it is important to talk together about what happened and return to a positive interaction.

  3. Maintain the desired behavior. Pay attention to and reward your child when they show the type of behavior you asked them to, and be specific about why you are praising them.

  4. Discuss activities together that will help your child express feelings and calm down. This could be drawing, doing outdoor activities like running, jumping or your favorite sport, reading a book, writing a story, baking or making something out of plasticine or Lego.

  5. Help your child understand his feelings. If you show interest in your child's feelings and experiences, it will help him understand and find words to describe them. You can also help them spot signs that let them know they are about to explode, such as feeling hot, squeezing muscles, or breathing more heavily.

  6. Try to remain calm. You may feel frustrated, angry, or overwhelmed when your child behaves defiantly - and this is completely normal. Try not to react or object when this is the case. Give yourself and your child some time to cool down before talking about it.

  7. Spend time with your child. Find something you can enjoy together, like going to the park, playing a board game, cooking, or watching your favorite movie.

  8. Talk to teachers at your child's school. Share your concerns with their teacher and find out what their experience is like. How is your child behaving at school? Is it similar or different from how they behave at home? If your child's teacher has found a way to help normalize the behavior, it may be helpful to try this at home as well.

The doctor diagnosed my child with ADHD. What is it and how to live with it?

This information is not a basis for self-diagnosis and treatment! Specialist consultation is required.

ADHD - Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

This is a violation of the development of the nervous system, namely its controlling function. ADHD is manifested by behavioral characteristics at an early age.
With this syndrome, it is difficult for a person:
• Suppress external and internal distractions
• Command oneself, organize oneself and control oneself (including in the emotional sphere)
• Motivate yourself
• Plan events and anticipate consequences.

This syndrome cannot be called a disease, it is rather a feature of development.

ADHD occurs in 7 out of 100 children. That's enough. With a high probability, there is such a child in every class and every group of kindergarten. Moreover, there is a tendency to increase the percentage of such children over time.

There are 4 times more boys with ADHD than girls. Causes There is a genetic predisposition for ADHD. In 75 percent of cases, parents with signs of ADHD will have a child with the same feature.

In addition to genetic predisposition, the following factors may play some but not decisive role:
• Antenatal exposure to the fetus (nicotine, alcohol)
• Prematurity and low birth weight
• Perinatal damage to the central nervous system.

Sleep deprivation and life changes that require adaptation can exacerbate (but not cause!) the manifestations of ADHD. The effects of food additives - sugar, saturated fat and processed carbohydrates - are being studied, but this topic requires further research.

What happens in the nervous system?

In the simplest language, the balance in the work of dopamine and norepinephrine in the cerebral cortex is disturbed. We will need this information when we talk about treatment.

Manifestations As the name implies, ADHD is manifested by decreased attention and hyperactivity. Along with hyperactivity, impulsivity is also distinguished - a violation of control over emotions.

What symptoms of inattention can be seen in a child?
• Inattentive to details, makes careless mistakes
• Has difficulty maintaining attention during play, school, or home activities
• Doesn't seem to listen, even when spoken to directly
• Does not do homework, household chores
• Has difficulty organizing tasks, activities
• Avoids tasks that require constant mental effort
• Loses items needed to complete tasks or activities (eg, school books, sports equipment, etc.)
• Easily distracted
• Forgetful in daily activities

What about hyperactivity/impulsivity?
• Excessive fidgeting (eg tapping on hands or feet, fidgeting in seat)
• Difficulty staying in one's seat when sitting is required (eg at school, movies, etc. )
• Feeling restless (teenagers) or running or climbing inappropriately in young children
• Does not know how to play calmly, quietly
• Walks as if “with a motor”.
• Too talkative
• Has difficulty waiting in line
• Blurts out answers too quickly without listening to question
• Interrupts, intervenes in other people's dialogues.

However, if you simply note that the child does not want to learn lessons, it is too early to talk about ADHD.

First , you must score at least 6 symptoms of inattention and 6 symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity. For adolescents, the presence of 5 symptoms will be true.

Second , symptoms should:
• Be present in more than one setting (eg school and home)
• Keep for at least six months
• Be present before the age of 12 (however, the child can be tested from the age of 4) Symptoms disrupt the child's educational, social life
• May not be caused by other mental disorders.

Associated problems - Often other problems accompany ADHD:

• Specific learning disorders such as dyslexia and dysgraphia
• Developmental speech disorder
• Autism Spectrum Disorder
• Violation of the development of coordination
• Sleep disorders
• Tiki
• Depression
• Anxiety
• Propensity to use psychoactive substances.

What are the possibilities for correction?

Parent-Child Education on the topic of the problem (this manual was written for this :)), reading the relevant literature: “Why am I distracted?” Edward Hallowell, "Child Mattresses and Disaster Children" by Ekaterina Murashova

Behavioral Correction .
It is based on the improvement of methods of education:
Use of positive reinforcement (praise for desired behavior), introduce "symbolic economy":
- A system of points, tokens given to the child as motivation for achieving small goals. Then the child will be able to cancel the accumulated points for something more significant)
- Scolding for unwanted behavior is not productive. Instead, you can use the system of the cost of the answer (subtract the accumulated points / tokens), distraction, removal from the situation or timeout. The timeout system - ignoring unwanted behavior - was described in his book "Magic on 1-2-3" by Thomas Phelan. Karen Pryor also describes the features of upbringing methods in the book Don't Grow at the Dog.
- Setting small achievable goals. Break big goals into small ones. For children with ADHD, large amounts of work seem impossible, and rewards in the form of a “bike at the end of the school year” are unattainable, so they do not motivate them. Based on this, we break both goals and rewards into smaller ones, as described above
- Restriction of choice. Be sure to offer options, because. this creates a sense of predictability

Environment Correction:
- Using charts and checklists to help your child stay "on task"
- Finding activities that make the child feel successful (e. g. hobbies, sports)
- Maintaining a daily schedule: what tasks the child has for that day and the approximate time to complete them. Rest episodes, games are also included in the schedule)
- Minimize distractions while doing homework by taking regular scheduled breaks
- Providing specific and logical places for the child to store their school supplies, toys and clothes
- Correction of the environment at school: additional hours with a teacher, classes with low occupancy, the location of the student closer to the teacher, correct reminders from the teacher when the student is distracted, the presence of a resource room where the child can switch, relax.

• Psychotherapeutic interventions:
play therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy. This is done by a psychologist or psychotherapist.

• Management of related problems such as sleep disorders, anxiety, oppositional defiant behavior, etc.

• Medication management
In Russia, Atomoxetine (Strattera) is approved for the treatment of ADHD. Its effectiveness and side effects have been studied on more than 5,000 subjects. Atomoxetine affects the exchange of norepinephrine in the body.

The drug may cause side effects such as weight loss, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, headache, irritability, drowsiness (more common in children) and insomnia (more common in adults).

There are more unpleasant side effects, such as effects on the heart and depressive and suicidal thoughts.
Therefore, medications are never the first line of therapy, they are prescribed strictly in consultation with the doctor in addition to the above-mentioned methods of correction. Before you start taking it, you need to make sure that the child did not have these complaints before and conduct a study of heart function. If side effects occur, contact your doctor immediately
- If it is not possible to prescribe atomoxetine, drugs from the group of tricyclic antidepressants, for example, imipramine, are considered.

Not proven effective:
- Diet. However, if the parents kept a food diary and tracked behavior, certain foods can be discussed with the doctor
- Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplements

How to treat not recommended:
To date, nootropic therapy has not proven its effectiveness in ADHD: hopantenic acid (pantogam, pantocalcin), aminophenylbutyric acid (fenibut, anvifen), pyritinol (encephabol), cortexin, cerebrolysin.

You will not find data on these drugs in authoritative foreign sources, such as the FDA (Food and Drug administration), the international drug guide RXList. Studies conducted on these drugs have been performed on a small number of people and do not meet international standards. They do not have a clear point of application in ADHD, based on the mechanism of its manifestations. We cannot reliably speak not only about their effectiveness, but also about their safety. Approved for use only on the territory of the Russian Federation and CIS countries.

What will happen next?

The prognosis is overwhelmingly favorable. Up to 10% of people will have noticeable symptoms of ADHD as adults. Up to half - will no longer fit the criteria for ADHD. The rest of the children, having matured, will have some symptoms that generally do not interfere with life. Symptoms may temporarily worsen when a person enters new conditions for him.

What are the manifestations in adults?

Hyperactivity will appear as:
• Anxiety
• Verbosity
• Constant activity
• Tendency to choose very active work
• Procrastination
• Difficulty making decisions
• Poor management of your time
• Difficulties in organizing events
• More than usual ending relationships with people
• Frequent job changes
• Overreacting to disappointments
• Frequent driving violations

You may see such people among your acquaintances.

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