Ptsd and cptsd

SAMHSA’s National Helpline | SAMHSA

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  • SAMHSA’s National Helpline is a free, confidential, 24/7, 365-day-a-year treatment referral and information service (in English and Spanish) for individuals and families facing mental and/or substance use disorders.

    Also visit the online treatment locator.

SAMHSA’s National Helpline, 1-800-662-HELP (4357) (also known as the Treatment Referral Routing Service), or TTY: 1-800-487-4889 is a confidential, free, 24-hour-a-day, 365-day-a-year, information service, in English and Spanish, for individuals and family members facing mental and/or substance use disorders. This service provides referrals to local treatment facilities, support groups, and community-based organizations.

Also visit the online treatment locator, or send your zip code via text message: 435748 (HELP4U) to find help near you. Read more about the HELP4U text messaging service.

The service is open 24/7, 365 days a year.

English and Spanish are available if you select the option to speak with a national representative. Currently, the 435748 (HELP4U) text messaging service is only available in English.

In 2020, the Helpline received 833,598 calls. This is a 27 percent increase from 2019, when the Helpline received a total of 656,953 calls for the year.

The referral service is free of charge. If you have no insurance or are underinsured, we will refer you to your state office, which is responsible for state-funded treatment programs. In addition, we can often refer you to facilities that charge on a sliding fee scale or accept Medicare or Medicaid. If you have health insurance, you are encouraged to contact your insurer for a list of participating health care providers and facilities.

The service is confidential. We will not ask you for any personal information. We may ask for your zip code or other pertinent geographic information in order to track calls being routed to other offices or to accurately identify the local resources appropriate to your needs.

No, we do not provide counseling. Trained information specialists answer calls, transfer callers to state services or other appropriate intake centers in their states, and connect them with local assistance and support.

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Last Updated: 08/30/2022

Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs

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Misusing alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs can have both immediate and long-term health effects.

The misuse and abuse of alcohol, tobacco, illicit drugs, and prescription medications affect the health and well-being of millions of Americans. NSDUH estimates allow researchers, clinicians, policymakers, and the general public to better understand and improve the nation’s behavioral health. These reports and detailed tables present estimates from the 2021 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH).



  • Among the 133.1 million current alcohol users aged 12 or older in 2021, 60.0 million people (or 45.1%) were past month binge drinkers. The percentage of people who were past month binge drinkers was highest among young adults aged 18 to 25 (29.2% or 9.8 million people), followed by adults aged 26 or older (22.4% or 49.3 million people), then by adolescents aged 12 to 17 (3.8% or 995,000 people). (2021 NSDUH)
  • Among people aged 12 to 20 in 2021, 15.1% (or 5.9 million people) were past month alcohol users. Estimates of binge alcohol use and heavy alcohol use in the past month among underage people were 8.3% (or 3.2 million people) and 1.6% (or 613,000 people), respectively. (2021 NSDUH)
  • In 2020, 50.0% of people aged 12 or older (or 138.5 million people) used alcohol in the past month (i.e., current alcohol users) (2020 NSDUH)
  • Among the 138.5 million people who were current alcohol users, 61.6 million people (or 44.4%) were classified as binge drinkers and 17.7 million people (28.8% of current binge drinkers and 12.8% of current alcohol users) were classified as heavy drinkers (2020 NSDUH)
  • The percentage of people who were past month binge alcohol users was highest among young adults aged 18 to 25 (31. 4%) compared with 22.9% of adults aged 26 or older and 4.1% of adolescents aged 12 to 17 (2020 NSDUH)
  • Excessive alcohol use can increase a person’s risk of stroke, liver cirrhosis, alcoholic hepatitis, cancer, and other serious health conditions
  • Excessive alcohol use can also lead to risk-taking behavior, including driving while impaired. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that 29 people in the United States die in motor vehicle crashes that involve an alcohol-impaired driver daily


  • STOP Underage Drinking interagency portal - Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Prevention of Underage Drinking
  • Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Prevention of Underage Drinking
  • Talk. They Hear You.
  • Underage Drinking: Myths vs. Facts
  • Talking with your College-Bound Young Adult About Alcohol

Relevant links:

  • National Association of State Alcohol and Drug Abuse Directors
  • Department of Transportation Office of Drug & Alcohol Policy & Compliance
  • Alcohol Policy Information Systems Database (APIS)
  • National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism



  • In 2020, 20. 7% of people aged 12 or older (or 57.3 million people) used nicotine products (i.e., used tobacco products or vaped nicotine) in the past month (2020 NSDUH)
  • Among past month users of nicotine products, nearly two thirds of adolescents aged 12 to 17 (63.1%) vaped nicotine but did not use tobacco products. In contrast, 88.9% of past month nicotine product users aged 26 or older used only tobacco products (2020 NSDUH)
  • Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death, often leading to lung cancer, respiratory disorders, heart disease, stroke, and other serious illnesses. The CDC reports that cigarette smoking causes more than 480,000 deaths each year in the United States
  • The CDC’s Office on Smoking and Health reports that more than 16 million Americans are living with a disease caused by smoking cigarettes

Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use data:

  • In 2021, 13.2 million people aged 12 or older (or 4.7%) used an e-cigarette or other vaping device to vape nicotine in the past month. The percentage of people who vaped nicotine was highest among young adults aged 18 to 25 (14.1% or 4.7 million people), followed by adolescents aged 12 to 17 (5.2% or 1.4 million people), then by adults aged 26 or older (3.2% or 7.1 million people).
  • Among people aged 12 to 20 in 2021, 11.0% (or 4.3 million people) used tobacco products or used an e-cigarette or other vaping device to vape nicotine in the past month. Among people in this age group, 8.1% (or 3.1 million people) vaped nicotine, 5.4% (or 2.1 million people) used tobacco products, and 3.4% (or 1.3 million people) smoked cigarettes in the past month. (2021 NSDUH)
  • Data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s 2020 National Youth Tobacco Survey. Among both middle and high school students, current use of e-cigarettes declined from 2019 to 2020, reversing previous trends and returning current e-cigarette use to levels similar to those observed in 2018
  • E-cigarettes are not safe for youth, young adults, or pregnant women, especially because they contain nicotine and other chemicals


  • Tips for Teens: Tobacco
  • Tips for Teens: E-cigarettes
  • Implementing Tobacco Cessation Programs in Substance Use Disorder Treatment Settings
  • Synar Amendment Program


  • Truth Initiative
  • FDA Center for Tobacco Products
  • CDC Office on Smoking and Health
  • National Institute on Drug Abuse: Tobacco, Nicotine, and E-Cigarettes
  • National Institute on Drug Abuse: E-Cigarettes



  • Among people aged 12 or older in 2021, 3. 3% (or 9.2 million people) misused opioids (heroin or prescription pain relievers) in the past year. Among the 9.2 million people who misused opioids in the past year, 8.7 million people misused prescription pain relievers compared with 1.1 million people who used heroin. These numbers include 574,000 people who both misused prescription pain relievers and used heroin in the past year. (2021 NSDUH)
  • Among people aged 12 or older in 2020, 3.4% (or 9.5 million people) misused opioids in the past year. Among the 9.5 million people who misused opioids in the past year, 9.3 million people misused prescription pain relievers and 902,000 people used heroin (2020 NSDUH)
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Understanding the Epidemic, an average of 128 Americans die every day from an opioid overdose


  • Medication-Assisted Treatment
  • Opioid Overdose Prevention Toolkit
  • TIP 63: Medications for Opioid Use Disorder
  • Use of Medication-Assisted Treatment for Opioid Use Disorder in Criminal Justice Settings
  • Opioid Use Disorder and Pregnancy
  • Clinical Guidance for Treating Pregnant and Parenting Women With Opioid Use Disorder and Their Infants
  • The Facts about Buprenorphine for Treatment of Opioid Addiction
  • Pregnancy Planning for Women Being Treated for Opioid Use Disorder
  • Tips for Teens: Opioids
  • Rural Opioid Technical Assistance Grants
  • Tribal Opioid Response Grants
  • Provider’s Clinical Support System - Medication Assisted Treatment Grant Program


  • National Institute on Drug Abuse: Opioids
  • National Institute on Drug Abuse: Heroin
  • HHS Prevent Opioid Abuse
  • Community Anti-Drug Coalitions of America
  • Addiction Technology Transfer Center (ATTC) Network
  • Prevention Technology Transfer Center (PTTC) Network



  • In 2021, marijuana was the most commonly used illicit drug, with 18. 7% of people aged 12 or older (or 52.5 million people) using it in the past year. The percentage was highest among young adults aged 18 to 25 (35.4% or 11.8 million people), followed by adults aged 26 or older (17.2% or 37.9 million people), then by adolescents aged 12 to 17 (10.5% or 2.7 million people).
  • The percentage of people who used marijuana in the past year was highest among young adults aged 18 to 25 (34.5%) compared with 16.3% of adults aged 26 or older and 10.1% of adolescents aged 12 to 17 (2020 NSDUH)
  • Marijuana can impair judgment and distort perception in the short term and can lead to memory impairment in the long term
  • Marijuana can have significant health effects on youth and pregnant women.


  • Know the Risks of Marijuana
  • Marijuana and Pregnancy
  • Tips for Teens: Marijuana

Relevant links:

  • National Institute on Drug Abuse: Marijuana
  • Addiction Technology Transfer Centers on Marijuana
  • CDC Marijuana and Public Health

Emerging Trends in Substance Misuse:

  • Methamphetamine—In 2019, NSDUH data show that approximately 2 million people used methamphetamine in the past year. Approximately 1 million people had a methamphetamine use disorder, which was higher than the percentage in 2016, but similar to the percentages in 2015 and 2018. The National Institute on Drug Abuse Data shows that overdose death rates involving methamphetamine have quadrupled from 2011 to 2017. Frequent meth use is associated with mood disturbances, hallucinations, and paranoia.
  • Cocaine—In 2019, NSDUH data show an estimated 5.5 million people aged 12 or older were past users of cocaine, including about 778,000 users of crack. The CDC reports that overdose deaths involving have increased by one-third from 2016 to 2017. In the short term, cocaine use can result in increased blood pressure, restlessness, and irritability. In the long term, severe medical complications of cocaine use include heart attacks, seizures, and abdominal pain.
  • Kratom—In 2019, NSDUH data show that about 825,000 people had used Kratom in the past month. Kratom is a tropical plant that grows naturally in Southeast Asia with leaves that can have psychotropic effects by affecting opioid brain receptors. It is currently unregulated and has risk of abuse and dependence. The National Institute on Drug Abuse reports that health effects of Kratom can include nausea, itching, seizures, and hallucinations.


  • Tips for Teens: Methamphetamine
  • Tips for Teens: Cocaine
  • National Institute on Drug Abuse

More SAMHSA publications on substance use prevention and treatment.

Last Updated: 01/05/2023

What is psychological trauma? —


What is psychological trauma?

Psychological trauma or psychotrauma is the harm from the impact of negative factors on the human psyche, which can contribute to the development of mental illness. Often, the presence of psychological trauma can lead a person to need treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder. Psychotrauma can be associated with physical trauma that threatens a person's life or violates a sense of security, which is accompanied by a strong emotional shock.

How does psychological trauma occur?

Psychotrauma always appears as a result of an external influence, which brings with it some internal consequences. It can be associated with both a real threat to a person’s life, and with some unfavorable circumstances. In the first case, it can be a terrorist attack, bombing, or, for example, rape, which objectively have a destructive effect on a person's life and health and can lead to mental illness, such as PTSD.

In the second case, any negative, uncomfortable, destructive, threatening event that a person perceives as traumatic, but according to objective criteria, is not such can become a psychological trauma. For example, such an event for a child may be a transfer to another school or a change of residence. Another example of such a trauma is when a child sees his father beating his mother. In this case, the child himself is not subject to physical violence, but he still experiences fear, and such events can form a psychological trauma for him.

Psychotrauma disrupts the normal organization of the psyche and can lead to the development of mental disorders.

Whether a person perceives a certain factor as traumatic depends on his individual characteristics, the significance of the event for the person, as well as the degree of his psychological security and resistance to life situations. The perception of a certain factor or event as trauma is based on fear and anxiety.

It happens that psychotrauma develops under the influence of some general external factor that causes anxiety, for example, a difficult political situation in the country or poverty in the family. Against the background of such situations, a person may develop a sense of anxiety, which will eventually form in the form of psychological trauma. A similar feeling can also develop in a child who is left alone by his parents for a long time, even though they return each time.

See also

What is borderline personality disorder?

Psychological trauma can lead to psychosomatic illnesses, neuroses, as well as emotional reactions to events that bring the person back to the trauma. Also, psychotrauma can play a role in the development of psychosomatic diseases, such as angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, or peptic ulcer of the gastrointestinal tract. Sometimes psychological trauma has an impact on the brain, as a result of which people lose the ability to adapt to stress and develop increased anxiety.

Psychotrauma disrupts the normal organization of the psyche and can lead to the development of mental disorders. At the borderline level, both temporary sensations of discomfort and stable conditions can appear that weaken the immune system, performance and adaptive thinking abilities.

How does psychological trauma lead to mental disorder?

It is important to note that trauma is a possible cause of the disorder, not the disease itself. There are traumatic events in everyone's life. Many parents in childhood were dropped due to an oversight, everyone was once frightened by the sound of a siren or a car horn, many had a kindergarten teacher or a teacher at school who cursed and screamed - we all went through some kind of traumatic events. However, not all of these traumatic events caused some kind of psychopathology. Why, despite the fact that the teacher yelled at everyone in the kindergarten group, this event became traumatic for only one child, and in the future contributed to the development of, for example, depression? The fact is that events become traumatic and lead to mental illness in people who are genetically predisposed to this and who grow up in a negative family environment.

Psychotrauma is a general theoretical concept that does not fully explain the development of a particular disease or condition.

Psychotrauma is never an independent problem or the only cause of a mental disorder. For example, the causes of borderline personality disorder are the organic component of the human brain, emotional instability, as well as destructive relationships in the family. Together, these factors lead to the development of the disease. A child whose parents constantly fight is more likely to develop depression, provided that he has a genetic predisposition for this disorder. A certain factor becomes a traumatic event for a person and leaves an imprint on his behavior and perception in the future, and in the future may develop a mental illness.

See also

Myths about diagnosing mental illness

The most common causes of childhood psychological trauma: insults and depreciation, neglect of the interests of the child, dysfunctional family environment, overprotection by parents, and physical abuse.

Research shows that children who have been abused are more likely to suffer from anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, and suicidal tendencies in the future.

How to get rid of psychological trauma?

Psychotrauma is a general theoretical concept that does not fully explain the development of a particular disease or condition. Western psychiatrists do not consider psychological trauma as the main factor or cause of the development of mental disorders, unless it refers to specific traumatic events that led to PTSD. Psychotrauma is perceived in the process of diagnosis and treatment as an accompanying and additional factor. Modern psychiatrists and psychotherapists treat diseases that theoretically could be caused by psychological trauma, but they do not deal with the treatment of psychotrauma itself, since they do not perceive it as an independent problem.

Psychotrauma, by definition, cannot be refuted, since any event in our life that made us scared and imprinted in our memory can be called a psychological trauma. And if you always appeal to the concept of psychotrauma, it will become impossible to explain and decompose a behavioral or mental problem into components, the mechanism of the formation of this problem and the way to solve it will not be clear.

  • Diseases and disorders


Psychological trauma: classification. Main symptoms of psychotrauma

June 14, 2022

June 14

6 minutes

6 minutes




Updated: 14 June 2022

Updated on 14. 06

For the first time the concept of "psychological trauma" was introduced into medical practice by Sigmund Freud in 1905. During a stressful event that the psyche cannot cope with, a person experiences a spectrum of conflicting feelings and emotions. In such cases, a lot of work with trauma is required, but even an adult does not always have enough resources to cope with its consequences. What to say about children who have not yet fully formed the psyche.

Article content

  1. What are the injuries?
  2. Symptoms of psychological trauma
  3. When should you contact a specialist?
  4. FAQ

What are the types of injuries?

To understand the mechanisms that allow you to get rid of psychological trauma, you need to know which of them a person has encountered.

Types of injury


Childhood trauma

Without exception, experts believe that the power of destruction of these injuries is incomparable with any other type. If a child is faced with severe stress, then this will certainly leave its mark on his mind. It is also exciting that almost every person has childhood trauma.

The trauma of losing a relative

Death scares most people. If a loved one passes away, it inflicts such a strong wound on the soul that it is almost impossible to cope with it without outside help. Psychological trauma in such cases prevents a person from living fully, enjoying, loving.

This category also includes mental trauma, which was formed after the betrayal of a loved one. If a loved one decides to end the relationship for no reason, then this can ruin the “former” personality forever. The person becomes withdrawn, distrustful.

Injury after a disaster

A person is not 100% in control of his life. Very often he is faced with phenomena that he cannot influence. This category includes: natural disasters, car accidents, war, etc. The human nervous system, which is faced with this destructive factor, cannot cope with the load, it is depleted. As a result, a psychological wound is formed. Fear and fear for one's own life, relatives, children, parents - it is almost impossible to cope with these feelings.

But not always psychological trauma carries something global. Often this can be an insignificant moment that had to be experienced in childhood, but entailed a strong traumatic reaction - an emotional blow.


A woman who had just given birth to a child categorically refused to feed him. She was not afraid to lose the beauty of her breasts, she understood how important milk was for a baby, but she could not overcome her own “disgust” for this process. At a session with a psychologist, it was possible to find out that in childhood she played mothers and daughters. Acting as a mother, she breastfed the doll. Adults saw this moment - instead of a normal reaction, they began to laugh at the child. The little girl experienced incredible shame, which manifested itself at a conscious age in the form of refusing to breastfeed the child.

Important! There are no true and correct reactions to psychological stress. Any emotions and feelings that a person experiences during a psychotrauma are recognized as a completely normal consequence. The body reacts to stress individually, the main thing is to work out the problem in time to find a way out of the impasse.

Symptoms of psychological trauma

The heavy emotional pressure that occurs in a stressful situation is tolerated differently by each person. Some withdraw into themselves, others begin to “burn through” their lives, finding treatment in alcohol, parties, promiscuity. Therefore, the clinical picture in people who have experienced a psychological blow can be very different.

If we talk about injuries in adults and children, then in most cases they are accompanied by the following symptoms:

  • rejection of what happened, bordering on shock;
  • complete loss of faith in the justice of the world;
  • reclusive lifestyle;
  • anger turning into rage;
  • constant mood swings;
  • feeling of guilt for what happened;
  • confusion and ignorance of how to live on;
  • inattention and detachment from the world;
  • fear and anxiety.

The fact that the psyche is broken is also indicated by physical symptoms:

  • The injured person stops sleeping peacefully, suffers from insomnia. At night, he sees nightmares that make him relive the event again and again.
  • Tachycardia, turning into severe discomfort in the region of the heart.
  • Pain that appears in the most unexpected places in the absence of somatic diseases.
  • Chronic fatigue.
  • Muscle tension, nervous tics.
  • Disorders of coordination, etc.

The duration of the symptoms of a psychological wound varies from a couple of days to a year. The degree of its manifestation gradually fades away, as the person learns to live in his new state. However, at the moment when it seems that everything is left behind, memories emerge in the mind with renewed vigor. This leads to retraumatization.

Book an online consultation if thoughts of the past are haunting you. Our doctors will remotely help work through psychological trauma and tell you how to cope with post-traumatic stress disorder, which will allow you to live a fulfilling life.

When should I see a specialist?

Restoring psychological balance can take a long time. Some people can handle the situation on their own. But some patients cannot do without the help of a doctor. Urgent psychological help should be sought if:

  • The sensations that a person experienced after an injury do not go away for several months. Their intensity remains high.
  • A new emotional state has a toxic effect on life: relationships in the family and at work worsen.
  • Working through childhood traumas or any other is necessary if, because of this situation, the injured person withdraws into himself, renounces any relationship, as he is afraid to enter into intimacy with anyone.
  • A once healthy person becomes emaciated, sickly, and extinct.
  • The patient tries to avoid any events, things, deeds that may remind of the events that led to the psychotrauma.
  • Oppressive thoughts are suppressed by psychoactive substances: alcohol, tobacco, smoking mixtures or drugs.

Important! All people, without exception, should understand that with psychological trauma, the reaction in the form of grief and grief is natural and normal. You can’t blame yourself for what happened, it’s important to allow yourself to experience the full range of emotions and feelings. This will protect the body from exhaustion. However, if the trauma changes dramatically life, then the help of a psychologist is needed.


What childhood traumas prevent adults from living?


Much attention has been paid to childhood trauma in psychology. This is due to the frequency of their occurrence. Any word or action of an adult can inflict a mental wound on a child. But the most dangerous situations are recognized as situations associated with a break in relations (for example, when parents divorce), with violence (not only physical, but also emotional), with the rejection of the parents of their children. Therefore, such children definitely need psychological help, since these injuries in 99% of cases have a negative impact on the future fate.

How can domestic violence affect a child's life?


It is important to understand that psychological trauma can occur not only in situations where the impact is directly on a minor. For example, if a father beats a mother in front of a child, then this will be a severe psychological blow for the baby. At the moment of the next scandal, he experiences helplessness, fear, anger, guilt for not being able to stop a man. For many children who have suffered such a trauma, their perception of the world changes - the so-called psychology of violence is formed. The idea that violence is identical to domination is put off in my head. Therefore, children, when they become adults, begin to practice this behavior in relation to loved ones.

Why does not everyone remember childhood psychotrauma?


It depends on the body's response to psychological stress and emotional stress. Many children, faced with a critical situation for the psyche, try to forget what happened. Therefore, in adulthood, they really do not remember that they suffered a mental trauma. The consequences will be visible anyway. For example, a hospitable and sociable child can become a closed person, living in his lonely little world.

We publish only verified information

Article author

Monakhova Albina Petrovna clinical psychologist

Experience 17 years

Consultations 1439

Articles 266

Specialist in clinical psychology. Help in finding tools for self-realization, working out beliefs, fears and anxieties. Work with self-attitude, internal boundaries, understanding of interaction with society through conscious personal changes.

  • 2007 - 2008 Children's polyclinic No. 4 - teacher psychologist
  • 2008 – 2009 Healthy Country LLC – clinical psychologist
  • 2009 - 2021 Republican Narcological Dispensary - psychologist
  • 2012 – 2013 Occupational medicine – psychologist
  • 2013 - 2015 LLC Vozrozhdenie - psychologist
  • 2019 to present Teledoctor24 LLC – psychologist


  1. … Reshetnikov, M. M. Psychic trauma: a textbook for bachelor's, specialist's and master's degrees / M. M. Reshetnikov. - 2nd ed. - Moscow: Yurayt Publishing House, 2019. - 200 p. - (Author's textbook).
  2. … Bermant-Polyakova O.V. Post-trauma: diagnosis and therapy. - St. Petersburg: Rech, 2006.
  3. … Nakazava D.D. "SHARDS OF CHILDHOOD INJURIES" / Donna Jackson Nakazawa, Bombora, 2018.


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ISTSS – Global Psychotrauma Screen (GPS)

Home > > Global Psychotrauma Screen (GPS)

The Global Psychotrauma Screening (GPS) was developed by an international group of experts representing traumatic stress societies worldwide (initiated by ISTSS) called the Global Collaboration on Traumatic Stress (Schnyder et al., 2017).

GPS is a concise tool designed to identify a range of psychological problems associated with trauma, as well as risk and protective factors.

Please find a GPS here or go here to participate in an intercultural project related to COVID-19.

GPS is currently available in 23 languages ​​ and covers the following domains with 22 yes/no responses:

  • PTSD
  • PTSD Complex
  • Anxiety
  • Depression
  • Sleep problems
  • Self-damaging behavior
  • Dissociation
  • Other physical, emotional or social problems
  • Substance abuse
  • Other stressful events
  • Child injury
  • History of mental illness
  • Social support
  • Psychological stability

Early evidence indicates that GPS is a reliable and valid tool (Olff et al. , 2020). Normal scores will be published on the Global Collaboration on Traumatic Stress website.

Get more information or take part in GPS surveys.

Author/Publisher Information

PI: Miranda Olff, Amsterdam UMC, Department of Psychiatry, Amsterdam Neuroscience, location AMC & ARQ National Psychotrauma Centre, Diemen, The Netherlands

Project Team: Dean Aidukovic, Ann Bakker, Doug Brewer, Marilyn Kloitr, Greta Dybe, Paul Frewen, Julie Lanza, Bridget Luger Schuster, Gladys Mwiti, Misari Oe, Yanaina Pinto, Rita Rosner, Carolina Salgado, Ingo Schaefer, Julia Schellong, Uli Schneider, Jun Shigemura, Kitty Wu.

Key/primary references

Olf, M., Bakker, A., Frewen, P., Aakwaag, H., Aidukovich, D., Brewer, D., Elmore Borbon, D.L., Kloitr, M. , Hyland, P., Kassam-Adams, N., Knefel, M., Lanza, J.A., Luger-Schuster, B., Nickerson, A., Oe, M., Pfalz, M. K., Salgado , K., Sidat, S., Wagner, A. , Schneider, U. & Global Collaboration on Traumatic Stress (GC-TS) (2020). Screening for the consequences of trauma - an update on the global collaboration on traumatic stress. European Journal of Psychotraumatology , 11(1), 1752504

Schneider, U., Schafer, I., Aakvaag, H.F., Aidukovich, D., Bakker, A., Bisson, J.I., Brewer, D., Cloitre, M., Dybe, G.A., Freven, P., Lanza, J., Le Brock R., Luger-Schuster B., Mwiti G.K., Oe M., Rosner R., Shellong J., Shigemura J., Wu K. & Olff M. (2017). Global Collaboration on Traumatic Stress. European Journal of Psychotraumatology , 8.1.

Understanding trauma - Cn2r

What is PTSD?

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder that can develop after exposure to a traumatic event .

His diagnosis, recognized at DSM 5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and Psychiatric Disorders) and ICD 11 (International Classification of Diseases Eleventh Edition) are defined by specific criteria evolving more than one month after the event.

PTSD is mainly based on 3 categories of symptoms.


Revival of a traumatic experience: intrusive memories of the event, nightmares, flashbacks, etc.

Avoidance, people, activities, etc. that may remind you of the event.

Persistent perception of the current threat: hypervigilance, exaggerated startle response, difficulty concentrating, irritability, etc.

PTSD alters the social, family and professional functioning of the people it affects in many ways, depressing them.

, in frequently disconnecting difficulties. The quality of their lives, as well as the lives of those around them, is significantly reduced with devastating consequences at the individual level: stress, a drop in self-esteem, the development of a submissive mentality, etc.

What is complex post-traumatic stress disorder?

When the traumatic event lasts for a long time or recurs without the ability to escape or defend oneself, as in the case of sexual abuse and abuse in childhood, school harassment, abuse in a relationship when a person is in a state of dependence or drug addiction, or under conditions of war and torture, a second form of post-traumatic stress disorder, called complex post-traumatic stress disorder, may occur (KPSD).

According to ICD 11, in addition to the symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, a person with complex post-traumatic stress disorder has persistent and pervasive impairments in emotional, personal, and interpersonal functioning.

This change results in:

Difficulty in regulating emotions; negative self-beliefs (“I suck,” “I’m worthless”), which are themselves associated with emotions such as shame or guilt; violations in relationships with others that interfere with building strong relationships.

He is even particularly vulnerable due to the fact that his level of emotional maturity is insufficient to allow him to understand the event and understand its meaning.

Post-traumatic stress disorder in children

It has long been believed that young age is a protective factor against psychological trauma. However, recent scientific studies show that children and adolescents, just like adults, can suffer from psychological trauma and may subsequently develop post-traumatic stress disorder or complex post-traumatic stress disorder.

He is even particularly vulnerable due to the fact that his level of emotional maturity is insufficient to allow him to understand the event and understand its meaning.

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Price upon request

Timbers, LLC, UA

Tovshchina - 32 mm; 52 mm; 56 mm Dovzhina - 2-2.5 - 3 m Width Ø 130 mm Variety mix

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150 $/m

wholesale from 120 $/m

Savchenko A.V., FLP, UA, 394 km

Manufacture of Countertops from natural stone Marble and Granite.

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1,000 UAH/t

wholesale from 1,200 UAH/t

A-Power, LLC, UA, 351 km

We constantly purchase scrap tires 33.00R51 with a metal cord at a price of 1000 UAH with VAT per ton. We also purchase oversized tires with...

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6 000 UAH/m.cub.

Maks-Bud, FLP, UA, 157 km

I will sell a beam, rail, board (pine) 4.5 m long and 6 m. There are many different sizes available. We also make custom sizes. Loading,...

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17 500 UAH / piece

wholesale from 17 500 UAH / piece

VISENT, LLC, UA, 369 km

Three soft-leaved species: Osika, Linden, Vilha - 17,000.00 UAH. Three hardwood species: Hornbeam, Oak, Birch - 17,500.00...

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4 300 UAH/piece

Rezunov K. E., FLP, UA, 394 km

Pіdpriyomstvo-Virobnik sells pellets (granules) from soniashpinnya. Warehouse: Dormouse husk Pratsiyuemo with MPE and without MPE Packing: Bigbag - 1...

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1 100 UAH/year (year)

Matveee S.M., FLP, UA, 468 km river, lakes,...

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460 UAH/Vacuum package — 55 grams 〉FIRST GRADE

Lesnaya Zdravnitsa, ChP, UA, 442 km

Hello! → Buy from me: - Ripe [freshly released spores] Red Fly Agaric caps... Excellent "Amanita Muscaria" → "FIRST CLASS" really...

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420 $/ha

Denis Denis, UA

I will sell the corporate rights of a rural sponsoring enterprise near the Volyn region with a land bank of 625 ha (virgin, peat bonitet 50 bal_v)...

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Wholesale price

from 130 UAH/mesh

Konid, ChP, UA

Prop buy sіl tekhnіchnu antizhelednu, packed in mіshkah 25 і 10 kg, with delivery to the city and region. Wholesale prices per 1nt Strength of technical...

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30 UAH/kg

wholesale from 28 UAH/kg

PlastServiceProm, Ltd., UA

PVC core (brown/black color) - ready to use (without adding a creed-clean material). Surpluses of virobnitstv, circulation of obmezheniya....

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1 000 UAH/hour

Polozyuk Pavlo Anatoliyovich, UA, 496 km

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Wholesale price

28.60 - 28.40 UAH/kg

Rome-2015, LLC, UA, 442 km

Sugar 2020g packing 50kg Dry sugar.

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Wholesale price

from 41 UAH/kg

Rim-2015, LLC, UA, 442 km

Rice round China available from a warehouse in Odessa. Form of payment is possible with VAT

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1 800 UAH/pc

Wholesale from 23,000 UAH/t

AHK Gran Ferte, LLC, 157 km

Amonia - Granulovana nitrogen -sirchane dobrivo, yake is staged by PID Ozimi I, yellow grain that urban culture, as well as fruits . ..

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Kalaida Maxim, UA, 442 km

We offer for sale a working business, an agro-industrial enterprise with activities: - Nursery - certified production...

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150 000 UAH/piece

Milono A.V., FLP, UA, 444 km


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Price on request

Dubіfast А.А., FLP, UA, 364 km

Rolling of thick sheet metal. Rolling channel, beams. Production of cones (including eccentric ones), shells, drums, bandages and...

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10,500 UAH/t

Kobeks, Ltd., UA, 303 km

Blast furnace coke is used as a fuel for cupolas of foundries at machine-building plants. Coke carbon 99 ash 0.7 sulfur...

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Kondrat Mikola, UA, 470 km

Pellet line in an ideal station on the basis of avm 0. 65 and ogm 1.5. 3 months ago, major overhaul, matrix Nimechchina 6mm vikoristan on...

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full time, work experience from 1 year and above

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in Lviv, full time, work experience from 1 year and above

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UAH 5,000/piece

Gorobets A., FLP, UA

Absolutely new watch bought in Germany Men's wrist watch CASIO G-Shock is a legendary collection of the world-famous Japanese brand

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1,000,000 UAH/piece

PG Sever - Stal, LLC, UA

I will buy a used concrete plant from 60 to 120 m3 per hour. Definitely working condition. It is possible with the wear of spare parts. It is possible without silos. Automation...



20 UAH/piece

wholesale 15 - 18 UAH/piece

Pastukhov Maxim Mykolayovich, UA, 82 km NEW



8 500 UAH / t

wholesale 7 500 - 8 000 UAH / t

Sushko Konstantin, UA

Pine fuel pellet 6mm 100%! Own production, constant quality control, the best combination of price / quality. Packing for 1t...


350 UAH/pcs

Panas Igor Leonidovich, UA, 29 km

Plumbing repair / Plumbing installation / Installation of water supply pipes / Installation of polypropylene pipes / Installation of heating / Replacement of sewerage /...



90 UAH/kg

Makarenko Maksim Sergeevich, UA

Korop 2-row dzerkalny і simple, as soon as the ice melts there will be sales, Available 10-12 tons. The price may change depending on the price of...


120 UAH/piece

Olshansky V_ktor, UA

110w .24 v . d 12mm. L-80mm air finger heating element for molds, new output two wires



842 UAH/piece

Yu.S. Timoshkina, FLP, UA, 55 km

A cheerful family of turtles amusingly rotates their shells while moving, urging the baby to move forward, developing motor skills.



360.35 UAH/pc Elektrotovar, FLP, UA, 40 km

Lamp LED 54W "Tetra-54" 4200K

Wholesale price

4 - 5 UAH/piece

Radiotech, FLP, UA

For 4 UAH: P201E - 8 pcs P201AE - 1 piece P202E - 4 pcs P213 - 22 pcs P213A - 5 pcs P213B - 33 pieces P214 - 17 pcs P214A - 98...


15 000 UAH/piece

Lukomskiy, FLP, UA

We offer a great assortment of ready-made logs of standard sizes and shapes, and we also accept custom-made preparations. Mi...


Price upon request

Global Sale, Ltd., UA

TOV "GLOBAL SALE" is honored to offer vouchers for high-yield fuel in the assortment (gasoline/diesel fuel/gas) at CLO filling stations. Also є...



450 UAH/80 grams

Vlasovets V., FLP, UA, 129 km Wonderful action in case of damage and restoration of potency. Recommendations for admission, write in viber, or call.



14 000 €/piece

MK, Ltd., UA

Gucbir weaver Krajina virobnik Turechchina Zakhist in the form of a short chirp So Zahist vіd revantazhennia So Number of phases 3 Construction...


3 692 700 UAH/piece

Tomchuk A.M., FLP, UA

Diesel generator VISA P650B 576 kW. The maximum power is 576 kW. Vitrati paliva at 100% availability 132 l/year.



1 200 $/pc

Kosmovoyentorg, ChP, UA, 82 km

Body Bortoviy Zil 131 with benches, Original



1 UAH/piece

Novograd-Volynsky, FLP, UA, 82 km

Fabric sieve for borosnomelny unit.



22 500 €/piece


1) other item 1 piece up to 50 pieces 2) low collaborative copy - 0.01 euro/od 3) versatility - different surfaces: bags...



1 200 hryvnia/piece

Minispecial equipment, state of emergency, UA

A classy gift to God. The collection of bank coins of ZSU theme in capsules and wooden souvenir packaging will be the best...



180 UAH/pcs

Komagro-tekh, LLC, UA, 50 km Rozmir: 120x550. Shield discs are vitratny material of the communal shield or other utility equipment.


1 UAH/service

Victoria, ChP, UA

I will be your representative in the city of Zhytomyr and the region. Wash your hands. Vigіdne mіstseznakhodzhennya and nebhіdne for svіvpratsі: - railway area and auto . ..


Wholesale price

from 33 UAH/kg


Soda calcined for water-resistance, mild and fatty zas_b. Victory for porcelain, earthenware, enameled,...



1 000 UAH/piece

Fedor Seletsky, UA, 40 km


1 200 UAH/piece

Korsunskiy V., FOP, UA

Clearance for export, import in Zhytomyr mitnitsa. Issuance of a certificate for the transportation of vantage under small seals. Accreditation...

22 km



7 500 €/piece

Profuna, LLC, UA

Sell diesel generator 75 kVa In nayavnosti in Ukraine, passed MOT, working, overturned. Bargain Fns6115-081-2032 Kw...



1 040 €/m.cub.

Lyashchova Anzhelika Gennadiivna, UA

Prop laminated plywood and polished Ukrainian sawn wood for export. format 2500*1250, size 04mm-30mm, price stated...

Wholesale price

UAH 8,000 - 10,000/t

Andriy Ganchenko, UA

I will buy N+A1 certified pellets from the yalits in the great deal.



1 300 UAH/piece

Ushchapovsky Vladimir Dmitrievich, Self-employed, UA, 77 km

Ratchet handle 1/2" 72 teeth, reversible with two-component coatings; Hex socket socket 1/2" 17 pcs: 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17,...


250 000 UAH/pcs

OPT 220 000 - 225 000 UAH/pcs

Mechanic, LLC, UA

Glovennet Okholodzhuvach BV -40 on pydprimstvo Ekonoshasa for the hunting of grain grain, yak naslizhodok, Zmenshol Vitratite ENETUTETA ta...



100 UAH/piece

Mazurenko Sergiy Mazurenko, UA, 55 km

I will sell an oak board. Dovzhina 2. 1, 2.5 and 3.0m. Tovshchina 22 and 32mm. Grade 1-4.



111 UAH/pc - used barrels (reservoirs, tanks) s-p_d PMM 2000m3, 1000m3, 400m3, 200m3, 100m3, 75m3, 50m3, 25m3, 10m3, 5m3; - used pipes; - used sheet...



999 UAH/pc

Oleksandr Yuriyovich Baranovskiy, UA

We sell firewood of all kinds at the lowest price in Ukraine, call and get all the information from the manager! It is more practical to wholesale...



4 700 UAH/piece

Profi Ars, LLC, UA

Pneumatic settlement jack DPU-5 is for sale. vantazhopidyomnist 5t. pidyom height 170-550mm.



20 UAH/km

Yu.V. Kurelchuk, FOP, UA, 71 km

Small-sized cargo transportation. 8 people/mission..



1 UAH/piece


Freeze juice and puree Company Malin Fektori provides various services for the preparation of fruit and vegetable products for sale in stores and.

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