Consequences of being obese
Health consequences of being overweight
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14 March 2013 | Q&A
What are the health consequences of being overweight?
The latest WHO projections indicate that at least one in three of the world's adult population is overweight and almost one in 10 is obese. Additionally there are over 40 million children under age five who are overweight.
Being overweight or obese can have a serious impact on health. Carrying extra fat leads to serious health consequences such as cardiovascular disease (mainly heart disease and stroke), type 2 diabetes, musculoskeletal disorders like osteoarthritis, and some cancers (endometrial, breast and colon). These conditions cause premature death and substantial disability.
What is not widely known is that the risk of health problems starts when someone is only very slightly overweight, and that the likelihood of problems increases as someone becomes more and more overweight. Many of these conditions cause long-term suffering for individuals and families. In addition, the costs for the health care system can be extremely high.
The good news is that overweight and obesity are largely preventable. The key to success is to achieve an energy balance between calories consumed on one hand, and calories used on the other hand.
To reach this goal, people can limit energy intake from total fats and shift fat consumption away from saturated fats to unsaturated fats; increase consumption of fruit and vegetables, as well as legumes, whole grains and nuts; and limit their intake of sugars. And to increase calories used, people can boost their levels of physical activity - to at least 30 minutes of regular, moderate-intensity activity on most days.
Diet and physical activity: a public health priority
Consequences of Obesity | Overweight & Obesity
- Health Conditions
- Economic Impact
- Military Readiness
People who have obesity, compared to those with a healthy weight, are at increased risk for many serious diseases and health conditions. In addition, obesity and its associated health problems have a significant economic impact on the US health care system. Obesity also affects military readiness.
Obesity in children and adults increases the risk for the following health conditions. 1,2,3
- High blood pressure and high cholesterol which are risk factors for heart disease.
- Type 2 diabetes.
- Breathing problems, such as asthma and sleep apnea.
- Joint problems such as osteoarthritis and musculoskeletal discomfort.
- Gallstones and gallbladder disease.
Childhood obesity is also associated with:4,5,6
- Psychological problems such as anxiety and depression.
- Low self-esteem and lower self-reported quality of life.
- Social problems such as bullying and stigma.
- Obesity as adults.
Adults with obesity have higher risks for stroke, many types of cancer, premature death, and mental illness such as clinical depression and anxiety.7,8
Annual obesity-related medical care costs in the United States, in 2019 dollars, were estimated to be nearly $173 billion.9 Annual nationwide productivity costs of obesity-related absenteeism range between $3. 38 billion ($79 per individual with obesity) and $6.38 billion ($132 per individual with obesity).10
Direct medical costs may include preventive, diagnostic, and treatment services. Indirect costs relate to sickness and death and include lost productivity. Productivity measures include employees being absent from work for obesity-related health reasons, decreased productivity while at work, and premature death and disability11
Just over 1 in 3 young adults aged 17-24 is too heavy to serve in the US military [PDF-774KB]. Among the young adults who meet weight requirements, only 3 in 4 report physical activity levels that prepare them for challenges in basic training. Consequently, only 2 in 5 young adults are both weight-eligible and adequately active for military service.
Also, 19% of active-duty service members had obesity in 2020, up from 16% in 2015. These individuals are less likely to be medically ready to deploy. Between 2008 and 2017, active-duty soldiers had more than 3. 6 million musculoskeletal injuries. One study found that active-duty soldiers with obesity were 33% more likely to get this type of injury.
Top of Page
- NHLBI. 2013. Managing Overweight and Obesity in Adults: Systematic Evidence Review from the Obesity Expert Panel.
- Clinical Guidelines on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults.
- Bhaskaran K, Douglas I, Forbes H, dos-Santos-Silva I, Leon DA, Smeeth L. Body-mass index and risk of 22 specific cancers: a population-based cohort study of 5.24 million UK adults. Lancet. 2014 Aug 30;384(9945):755-65.
- Morrison KM, Shin S, Tarnopolsky M, et al. Association of depression and health related quality of life with body composition in children and youth with obesity. Journal of Affective Disorders 2015;172:18–23.
- Halfon N, Kandyce L, Slusser W. Associations between obesity and comorbid mental health, developmental, and physical health conditions in a nationally representative sample of US children aged 10 to 17. Academic Pediatrics. 2013;13.1:6–13.
- Beck AR. Psychosocial aspects of obesity. NASN Sch Nurse. 2016;31(1):23–27.
- Kasen, Stephanie, et al. “Obesity and psychopathology in women: a three decade prospective study.” International Journal of Obesity 32.3 (2008): 558-566.
- Luppino, Floriana S., et al. “Overweight, obesity, and depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies.” Archives of general psychiatry 67.3 (2010): 220-229.
- Ward ZJ, Bleich SN, Long MW, Gortmaker SL (2021) Association of body mass index with health care expenditures in the United States by age and sex. PLoS ONE 16(3): e0247307. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0247307
- Trogdon JG, Finkelstein EA, Hylands T, Dellea PS, Kamal-Bahl. Indirect costs of obesity: a review of the current literature. Obes Rev.2008;9(5):489–500.
- Hammond RA, Levine R. The economic impact of obesity in the United States. Diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity : targets and therapy. 2010;3:285-295.
⚕ What threatens obesity? ➡【Causes and treatment】
Obesity - what is it? Aesthetic defect, inconvenience, restriction in physical activity or is it still a disease? How does this affect health, what are the consequences? Is it possible to get rid of this deficiency, which doctor can help? We will look for answers.
Classification of obesity
Obesity is regarded as a serious disease in medicine. Moreover, since 1997, WHO has declared that the world is experiencing a global epidemic of obesity. In advanced economies, more than half of adults are underweight, and a third of the population is obese. The Ukrainians are not far behind. Overweight in the country live 58.4%, and obese - 24.1%.
Physicians call obesity a syndrome characterized by excessive accumulation of fat and weight gain. There are various reasons for this, among which it is necessary to highlight the imbalance of caloric intake and the level of physical activity. Simply put, if more calories are taken in with food than are spent during the day, then this leads to the accumulation of body fat. But the causes of obesity may be different:
- diseases - underdevelopment of the gonads, disturbances in the functioning of the thyroid gland and pituitary gland, damage to the nerve cells of the hypothalamus, Cushing's disease;
- treatment with female hormones, corticosteroids, antidepressants, etc.;
- genetic predisposition.
Body mass index (BMI) is used to assess the grade of obesity. This indicator is calculated by dividing body weight, expressed in kilograms, by the square of height, expressed in meters. Depending on the BMI, there are four stages of obesity:
- Pre-obesity. There are no severe symptoms of obesity. BMI within 25-29.9. It is treated with nutrition correction and increased physical activity.
- First degree. Outwardly quite pronounced, but more often perceived as an aesthetic defect, although shortness of breath, excessive sweating, edema, etc. may already be noted. BMI in the range of 30-34.9. Requires immediate weight adjustment.
- Second degree. Characterized by significant fat deposits that are hard to miss. BMI within 35-39.9. The symptoms characteristic of the first degree are added to a decrease in working capacity, difficulty walking and active physical activity. Requires treatment, tk. obesity tends to progress.
- Third degree. BMI above 40. Signs of obesity at this stage are easily identified by appearance. At this stage, headaches, a violation in the functioning of the cardiovascular system are added. Shortness of breath is observed not only in movement, but also at rest, the legs swell strongly. Such a patient needs not only the help of a nutritionist, but also a consultation with an endocrinologist.
Types of obesity
There are two types of obesity - hypertrophic and hyperplastic.
In the first case, the number of fat cells in a person remains unchanged. But they are constantly accumulating more and more fat. This type of obesity is usually characteristic of older people.
The second type is characterized by a constant increase in the number of fat cells. These cells secrete a substance that leads to an increase in appetite. Overeating causes the appearance of new cells. This type develops in patients who have the appropriate heredity and are prone to overeating. It develops in adolescents, pregnant women, women in menopause.
Types of obesity
There are two types of obesity, android (male) and gynoid (female), according to how fat accumulates in the body.
In the female type of obesity, fat deposits are more localized on the thighs, buttocks, and in the abdominal cavity. The figure becomes pear-shaped.
The male type of obesity is called apple. Due to the accumulation of fat in the chest, back and abdomen, the figure acquires an apple roundness. In this type, fat often accumulates not under the skin, but around the internal organs. Such obesity is called visceral.
Causes of obesity
Obesity is primary and symptomatic.
The causes of primary obesity are overeating, irregular meals, the predominance of foods with excess fat and fast carbohydrates in the diet. If, in addition, the patient leads a sedentary lifestyle, does not devote enough time to physical activity, then the signs of obesity will not be long in coming. Primary obesity can also be caused by a genetic predisposition. Although in this case, malnutrition and low physical activity play an important role.
Primary obesity is also observed in elderly patients. Metabolism decreases, the function of the center of appetite in the brain is disrupted, due to diseases, physical activity and its intensity decrease. All this leads to weight gain.
Symptomatic obesity is characterized by the fact that in this case weight gain occurs due to some disease. Endocrine diseases leading to hormonal failure cause weight gain. These are hypothyroidism, Cushing's disease and others. The treatment of some diseases requires the use of drugs that interfere with the hormonal system. Therefore, all appointments should be carried out only by a specialist.
Consequences of obesity
Obesity is associated primarily with aesthetic unattractiveness and limitation in movement. But doctors warn of serious complications of obesity. These include:
- Cardiovascular diseases.
Each additional kilogram of weight leads to the appearance of 1.5 km of vessels. This is a huge additional load on the heart. Even pre-obesity increases the likelihood of such formidable diseases as heart attack and stroke.
- Respiratory diseases.
Obesity hinders the functioning of the respiratory system. This leads to pain in the heart, to the appearance of sleep apnea syndrome, increased fatigue.
- Diabetes mellitus.
In overweight people, this disease is much more common. So for insulin-dependent diabetes, the risk in obese patients increases 40 times.
- Arterial hypertension.
The heart suffers, so pressure problems cannot be avoided.
- Failure in the hormonal system.
Insulin resistance occurs, which eventually leads to diabetes, growth retardation. In women, menstrual irregularities are noted, the amount of the hormone progesterone decreases, which makes the appearance masculine. In men, on the contrary, the appearance takes on an effeminate appearance due to a decrease in testosterone, and many are diagnosed with erectile dysfunction.
- Diseases of the gallbladder.
Overweight people are much more likely to be diagnosed with cholecystitis, cholelithiasis.
- Diseases of the liver.
Fatty liver leads to such a formidable disease as cirrhosis. In addition, it leads to an increase in the level of "bad" cholesterol in the body and the formation of cholesterol plaques.
- Oncological diseases.
There is overwhelming evidence that overweight women are more likely to develop breast cancer and men are more likely to suffer from prostate cancer. Patients of both sexes are at risk of developing cancer of the rectum, kidneys and stomach.
- Diseases of the musculoskeletal system, including gout and arthritis.
The spine and joints experience increased stress. A kilogram of body weight creates a load on the joints equal to four kilograms. This leads to the destruction and deformation of both the joints and the spine. There are pains that make movement difficult.
Mental problems are added to the consequences of obesity, self-esteem decreases. Patients need the help of a psychotherapist. The whole complex of complications leads to premature death of obese people.
Diagnosis of obesity
Diagnosis of obesity begins with an external examination. Also, anthropometric parameters are used. In addition to BMI, the size of the circumference of the waist, hips, and their ratio are estimated. The thickness of the fat fold on the abdomen is measured, which allows you to determine the type of obesity and the amount of fat in the body. A general therapeutic examination is carried out, on the basis of which instrumental and laboratory tests are prescribed.
Laboratory diagnosis of obesity includes general and biochemical analysis. As a result of these tests, the tendency to diabetes, cholesterol levels and other indicators are determined. An analysis is made for hormones - the thyroid gland, pituitary gland, sex hormones. A complete urinalysis and specimens are done to check for kidney problems. The inclusion of a hormonal panel in research helps to establish the role of heredity in the development of the disease.
Of the instrumental studies, a few should be highlighted. Computed tomography makes it possible to accurately determine the thickness of fat under the skin, as well as diagnose visceral obesity and pathologies of internal organs. The second most important method is ultrasound of the thyroid gland, adrenal glands, pancreas and liver. This study shows structural changes in organs. To clarify the diagnosis, the following are prescribed: MRI, bioimpedance analysis (BIA), underwater (hydrostatic) weighing, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DRA).
Treatment of obesity
Tactics for the treatment of obesity are chosen depending on the type, stage, presence of concomitant diseases. In the initial stages, a diet that includes high-fiber foods and limited foods high in easily digestible fast carbohydrates helps well. The diet should be prescribed by a dietitian, taking into account individual characteristics. The diet is supplemented with physical activity.
Medical treatment obesity is used in combination with a diet. This is a long term treatment. The doctor selects drugs individually, indicating the need to adhere to a healthy lifestyle.
Surgical treatment of obesity is currently considered the most effective. But bariatric surgery is used in the last stages of the disease. This operation is performed in two ways. American and Canadian surgeons in 90% of cases perform gastric bypass, which helps to get rid of 70 to 80% of extra pounds. In Europe, more often resort to adjustable gastric banding, which will save 50-60% of excess weight.
Prevention of obesity
The consequences of obesity are very serious. And you need to take action to avoid them. Obesity prevention comes down to following a healthy lifestyle. The diet should be complete, but calories should be limited. This can be achieved by reducing the amount of fat and sugar, focusing on the consumption of vegetables, fruits, berries, legumes, whole grains. Follow the diet, avoid snacking. Your rule should be physical activity. At least 2.5 hours per week for adults. And children are recommended daily exercise for an hour.
The article is for informational purposes only. Please remember: self-medication can harm your health.
- World Health Organization
- Mayo Clinic
Expert in the direction:
Marunchin Natalya Andreevna
Doctor-endocrinologist of the second category, candidate of medical sciences
Who can help?
Fighting extra pounds will be easier with the help of specialists. Effective treatment of obesity in Kyiv is carried out at the MEDICOM clinic in Obolon and Pechersk. Call the contact numbers of the call center and you will find out the cost of consultation and diagnostics, you can choose a doctor and make an appointment for an initial appointment. Do not endure discomfort - take care of your health as soon as possible!
Overweight: danger, causes, consequences, types of obesity
What is obesity
Obesity is a chronic disease characterized by excessive accumulation of fat in the subcutaneous layer and internal organs. The diagnosis poses a huge threat to the patient and carries with it a number of negative processes in the body: from minor hormonal disorders to oncology.
The American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Updates (American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Updates) defines obesity as a chronic, relapsing, multifactorial neurobehavioral disease in which an increase in body fat contributes to the dysfunction of adipose tissue and the biomechanical effect of adipose tissue on surrounding tissues with the development of metabolic and psychosocial health outcomes.
To assess the stage of obesity, use the body mass index (BMI), which is calculated as the ratio of body weight (in kilograms) to height (in meters) squared: mass height2. Obesity is diagnosed when a person's body weight exceeds the norm by more than 20%.
According to the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, in 2020, the largest proportion of obese people in Russia was found in the Leningrad Region and Altai Territory, and the smallest in Primorsky Territory, Chechnya, and Ingushetia. In total, about 2 million obese people are registered in Russia. Of course, the real figure is significantly different from the statistics, because not every person with this problem seeks professional help.
Causes of overweight
Obesity is a multifactorial disease, so it can occur for completely different reasons:
Overeating or imbalance between calories consumed and expended. We talked more about overeating and its risks in this article: https://antiage-expert. com/en/blog/kak-borotsya-s-pereedaniem/. As a result of an unreasonably high caloric content of the diet, the predominance of simple carbohydrates and saturated fats, there is an imbalance between the amount of calories consumed and expended.
High-carbohydrate or any other unsystematic diet. Strict restrictions in eating behavior very often lead to a breakdown, a set of extra pounds and walking in a vicious circle of “restriction - breakdown”.
Sedentary lifestyle - hypodynamia. Limited physical activity involves very little energy expenditure. This leads to a weakening of vascular tone, a decrease in muscle activity, a deterioration in lymph and blood flow. A sedentary lifestyle plays a huge role not only in the development of obesity, but also in the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases, as the intensity of metabolic processes decreases, cholesterol levels increase, and the formation of atherosclerosis.
Stress. Evolution at a subconscious level laid the following equality in the human brain: “Food = safety”. Eating negative feelings blocks the feeling of fullness, as a result of which a person begins to absorb food uncontrollably.
endocrine factor. Works in 5% of the total number of cases of obesity. The cause of endocrine overweight can be various conditions of hormonal imbalance, including polycystic ovary syndrome, menopause, hyperandrogenism, Cushing's syndrome, growth hormone deficiency, hypothyroidism.
The increase in body weight can also be due to age-related changes. Between the ages of 50 and 60, 60-65% of women experience weight gain of 2 or more kilograms. In particular, this is due to a decrease in estrogen levels and an increase in androgen levels. This shift in sex steroids affects metabolism, which leads to the development of abdominal obesity (in the abdomen).
Hypothalamic obesity also refers to the endocrine factor. The trigger is organic and functional lesions of the hypothalamus. The work of this organ can be disrupted by congenital anomalies, infectious diseases of the central nervous system (for example, encephalitis), trauma and surgical interventions of the head, aneurysm, histiocytosis, sarcoidosis. As a result of damage to the hypothalamus, appetite is stimulated (due to an increase in the production of neuropeptide Y) and a decrease in sensitivity to the hormone leptin.
One of the side effects of anticonvulsants, β-blockers, antipsychotics, oral contraceptives is weight gain.
In some cases, a person's gene can fail, as a result of which he will receive a hereditary disease and a tendency to be overweight from early childhood. These include: Prader-Willi syndrome, Bardet-Biedl syndrome, Kuchen's syndrome, Alström's syndrome, Frohlich's syndrome.
Genetics also influence the ratio of fat to lean mass.
Additional clinical symptoms
The range of complaints of obese patients cannot be called small. Obesity delivers not only aesthetic and psychological discomfort, but also causes symptoms such as:
Apathy, drowsiness, fatigue;
Tendency to constipation;
Decreased muscle mass;
Increased blood pressure;
loud snoring, sleep apnea;
Decreased libido and potency;
Violation of the menstrual cycle;
“Second” chin, fat “apron” on the stomach;
There are three types of obesity:
The accumulation of excess fat occurs in the area of the thighs, buttocks and in the lower abdomen. Unlike the abdominal type, it is considered less dangerous, especially in the initial stages, since the hormonal background does not suffer, and fat is deposited under the skin, and not viscerally (around the organs).
Fat is deposited on the abdomen, shoulders, chest and, in small quantities, on the legs. To a greater extent, this type is inherent in men, so it is often called android or male. If it develops in a woman, then, as a rule, this is due to an imbalance of sex hormones, namely, an increase in testosterone levels.
This type of obesity poses a serious danger to the human body. The degradation of internal processes begins already from the first stages of obesity: the mobility of the abdominal wall decreases, intra-abdominal pressure begins to increase, and breathing is disturbed.
ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision) classifies abdominal obesity as a category of "Diseases of the endocrine system, eating disorders and metabolic disorders. "
Fat is deposited viscerally, that is, between the abdominal organs. It accumulates toxins, increases the level of sugar and triglycerides, destroys blood vessels and causes chronic diseases, including diabetes.
Normally, visceral fat makes up approximately 10% of the total mass of all fat in the body and is even involved in the function of reproduction. But if it builds up to excessive levels, it releases unhealthy proteins, hormones, and chemicals that increase vulnerability to many diseases. So, for example, free fatty acids affect the production of lipids in the blood, and cytokines increase the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases.
In this case, the deposition of fat occurs relatively evenly in all parts of the body.
There is also primary and symptomatic obesity.
The appearance of primary obesity is based on an unhealthy lifestyle (fatty foods, a sedentary lifestyle, poor sleep, prolonged stress), as well as genetics. Often it appears in the elderly due to a decrease in metabolism, disturbances in the functions of appetite in the brain and minimal physical activity.
Symptomatic obesity is characterized by weight gain due to some disease. For example, Cushing's disease, hypothyroidism and others.
Degrees of obesity
To assess the degree of obesity, experts use BMI (body mass index). How to calculate it, we wrote above.
According to the classification approved by the World Health Organization, a BMI of less than 18.5 corresponds to underweight; 18.5-24.9- normal; 25-29.9 - excess; 30 and above - obesity.
Depending on the BMI, there are 4 stages of obesity:
Preobesity. An intermediate stage between normal body weight and obesity. BMI is in the range of 25-29.9. The patient is prone to increased appetite, deterioration of the quality of the skin of the face (excess secretion of fat, acne) and the body (flabbiness of the skin, stretch marks).
First degree. Registered if the BMI is in the range from 30 to 34.9. Symptoms include shortness of breath, swelling, and excessive sweating. Requires immediate weight correction, active training and nutritional correction.
Second degree. BMI varies from 35 to 39.9 In a patient with obesity of the second degree, there is a decrease in working capacity, difficulty walking.
Third degree. BMI - above 40. The third degree brings patients significant discomfort in everyday life: shortness of breath appears not only in motion, but also at rest, the functioning of the cardiovascular, reproductive, hormonal systems is disrupted, and frequent headaches begin.
Fourth degree. Diagnosed in patients whose weight exceeds the allowable norm twice.
Consequences of obesity
Obesity-associated diseases and conditions in which obesity exacerbates the risk of complications include:
An increase in body weight by 1 kilogram increases the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases by 3. 1%. Adhesion of cholesterol to the walls of the arteries causes the formation of fatty plaques that narrow the lumen of the vessels. When the organ is completely clogged with atherosclerotic plaques, blood stops flowing, and the organ simply dies. According to this mechanism, cerebral stroke and myocardial infarction develop. If atherosclerosis affects the coronary vessels, then coronary heart disease develops.
Obesity is a risk factor for the development of non-alcoholic fatty gallbladder disease (choleceostosteatosis, steatocholecystitis).
Obesity hinders the functioning of the respiratory system and also leads to the symptoms of sleep apnea. Hypoventilation syndrome also develops - insufficient (incomplete) ventilation of the lung or its lobe. Occurs as a result of impaired airway patency.
Obesity is a major factor in the development of type 2 diabetes. The effectiveness of insulin in this case is extremely low, since it cannot cope with the processing of fats entering the body. According to the results of the WHO population diagnostics, diabetes mellitus in overweight people develops 7 times more often than in people with normal weight.
In women, there is a violation of the menstrual cycle, thyroid disease, polycystic ovary syndrome, problems with conception, a decrease in the hormone progesterone. Overweight men experience erectile dysfunction, low testosterone and infertility.
Obesity is accompanied by an increase in the level of “bad” cholesterol, the formation of cholesterol plaques, cirrhosis of the liver.
The joints and spine in the presence of excess weight experience a tremendous load. There are severe pains that make it difficult to move. If you start the process of obesity, it will lead to deformity and destruction of the joints, the development of gout and arthritis.
In 2014, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) showed that about half a million new cases of cancer each year can be caused by being overweight. Many studies describe the existence of a strong association between obesity and an increased risk of developing cancer. At the moment, 13 types of cancer associated with obesity have been found: meningioma, cancer of the esophagus, thyroid gland, myeloma, cancer of the liver, pancreas, stomach, intestines, kidneys, breast, uterus, ovaries, endometrium.
Also, the consequences of obesity include problems with social life and the psyche.
Treatment of obesity
Treatment of patients is prescribed according to the type of obesity.
Pre-obesity and type 1: at this stage it is very important to increase energy expenditure, adjust the diet, remove fast carbohydrates from the diet and add physical activity.
The second type is often complicated by metabolic syndrome, arterial hypertension. In addition to the correct lifestyle and training, it is important to control laboratory blood tests (cholesterol, glucose, thyroid hormone levels). Depending on the “weak” places, the doctor prescribes medication.
Third type. This situation requires comprehensive and immediate assistance from nutritionists, endocrinologists, neurologists, cardiologists, psychotherapists, and sometimes surgeons.
Fourth type. The risks associated with being overweight are deadly. Therefore, surgical intervention is a common method.
Prevention of obesity
You can prevent obesity if you follow a few tips from doctors:
Control the caloric content of the diet according to the height, gender, physical activity and age of the patient;
Limit or completely eliminate fried, sugary foods, fast carbohydrates and fast food.
“The worst thing is fast food. The destructured fats formed during deep-frying or hydrogenation of vegetable oils are very harmful, since the body is not able to fully assimilate and excrete them. They become a slow-acting poison to cells, causing accelerated metabolic aging. It’s better not to even look at everything caramelized, black, fried in fats.”
Dorina Alekseevna Donich
MD, obstetrician-gynecologist, plastic surgeon, doctor of bioregenerative and anti-aging medicine, founder of the international school Anti-Age Expert.
Experience: 25 years
Physical activity should be regular and varied. For this, it is not necessary to go to the gym and work out to exhaustion. As a physical exercise, jogging, Nordic walking, home workouts are perfect. The most effective way would be to combine aerobic and moderate sports;
Keep a food diary if necessary;
Develop a “good relationship” with food to eliminate the moment of emotional overeating or, conversely, refusing food for some wrongdoing. Sometimes this requires a visit to a psychologist.
The problem of overweight of the population has long passed into a number of important social issues, as it leads to a huge number of chronic diseases that are dangerous to health.