Antidepressants with fewest side effects

Overview - SSRI antidepressants - NHS

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a widely used type of antidepressant.

They're mainly prescribed to treat depression, particularly persistent or severe cases, and are often used in combination with a talking therapy such as cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT).

SSRIs are usually the first choice medicine for depression because they generally have fewer side effects than most other types of antidepressant.

As well as depression, SSRIs can be used to treat a number of other mental health conditions, including:

  • generalised anxiety disorder (GAD)
  • obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)
  • panic disorder
  • severe phobias, such as agoraphobia and social phobia
  • bulimia
  • post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

SSRIs can sometimes be used to treat other conditions, such as premenstrual syndrome (PMS), fibromyalgia and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Occasionally, they may also be prescribed to treat pain.

How SSRIs work

It's thought that SSRIs work by increasing serotonin levels in the brain.

Serotonin is a neurotransmitter (a messenger chemical that carries signals between nerve cells in the brain). It's thought to have a good influence on mood, emotion and sleep.

After carrying a message, serotonin is usually reabsorbed by the nerve cells (known as "reuptake"). SSRIs work by blocking ("inhibiting") reuptake, meaning more serotonin is available to pass further messages between nearby nerve cells.

It would be too simplistic to say that depression and related mental health conditions are caused by low serotonin levels, but a rise in serotonin levels can improve symptoms and make people more responsive to other types of treatment, such as CBT.

Doses and duration of treatment

SSRIs are usually taken in tablet form. When they're prescribed, you'll start on the lowest possible dose thought necessary to improve your symptoms.

SSRIs usually need to be taken for 2 to 4 weeks before the benefit is felt. You may experience mild side effects early on, but it's important that you don't stop taking the medicine. These effects will usually wear off quickly.

If you take an SSRI for 4 to 6 weeks without feeling any benefit, speak to your GP or mental health specialist. They may recommend increasing your dose or trying an alternative antidepressant.

A course of treatment usually continues for at least 6 months after you feel better, although longer courses are sometimes recommended and some people with recurrent problems may be advised to take them indefinitely.

Things to consider

SSRIs aren't suitable for everyone. They're not usually recommended if you're pregnant, breastfeeding or under 18, because there's an increased risk of serious side effects. However, exceptions can be made if the benefits of treatment are thought to outweigh the risks.

SSRIs also need to be used with caution if you have certain underlying health problems, including diabetes, epilepsy and kidney disease.

Some SSRIs can react unpredictably with other medicines, including some over-the-counter painkillers and herbal remedies, such as St John's wort. Always read the information leaflet that comes with your SSRI medicine to check if there are any medicines you need to avoid.

Side effects

Most people will only experience a few mild side effects when taking SSRIs. These can be troublesome at first, but they'll generally improve with time.

Common side effects of SSRIs can include:

  • feeling agitated, shaky or anxious
  • diarrhoea and feeling or being sick
  • dizziness
  • blurred vision
  • loss of libido (reduced sex drive)
  • difficulty achieving orgasm during sex or masturbation
  • in men, difficulty obtaining or maintaining an erection (erectile dysfunction)

You'll usually need to see your doctor every few weeks when you first start taking SSRIs to discuss how well the medicine is working. You can also contact your doctor at any point if you experience any troublesome or persistent side effects.

Types of SSRIs

There are currently 8 SSRIs prescribed in the UK:

  • citalopram (Cipramil)
  • dapoxetine (Priligy)
  • escitalopram (Cipralex)
  • fluoxetine (Prozac or Oxactin)
  • fluvoxamine (Faverin)
  • paroxetine (Seroxat)
  • sertraline (Lustral)
  • vortioxetine (Brintellix)

Page last reviewed: 8 December 2021
Next review due: 8 December 2024

Types, Comparison Chart, and Suicide Risk

Antidepressant medications are a first-choice option for treating major depressive disorder (MDD), according to guidelines from the American Psychiatric Association. They can also help to treat anxiety conditions, including generalized anxiety disorder.

There are different types of antidepressants, based on how they work within the brain. Some are better for treating certain conditions and symptoms. But they all come with potential side effects.

Generally, each type causes somewhat different side effects, but there can still be some variance within a single type.

People can also respond differently to antidepressants. Some people may have no troubling side effects, while others may have one or more serious side effects. This is why you may need to try a few different medications before you find the right fit.

Here’s a look at the main types of antidepressants and some of the side effects commonly associated with them. If you take a certain type, you probably won’t experience all of the side effects associated with it. You might also experience other side effects, including some serious ones, that aren’t listed here.

SSRIs affect serotonin, which is a neurotransmitter that plays a role in many things, including your mood. Neurotransmitters act as chemical messengers within your body.

When your brain releases serotonin, some of it is used to communicate with other cells, and some of it goes back into the cell that released it. SSRIs decrease the amount of serotonin that goes back into the cell that released it, leaving more available in your brain to communicate with other cells.

Experts aren’t completely sure about the role serotonin plays in depression. But many believe that low levels of serotonin are a contributing factor.

SSRI antidepressants include:

  • citalopram (Celexa)
  • escitalopram (Lexapro)
  • paroxetine (Brisdelle, Paxil, Pexeva)
  • fluoxetine (Prozac)
  • fluvoxamine
  • sertraline (Zoloft)

SSRIs are the most common choice for treating MDD, but they can also help with:

  • generalized anxiety disorder
  • panic disorder
  • social anxiety disorder
  • premenstrual dysphoric disorder
  • post-traumatic stress disorder
  • obsessive-compulsive personality disorder
  • hot flashes

Common side effects

The more common side effects of SSRIs include:

  • headaches
  • nausea
  • trouble sleeping
  • dizziness
  • diarrhea
  • weakness and fatigue
  • anxiety
  • stomach upset
  • dry mouth
  • sexual problems such as low sex drive, erectile dysfunction, or ejaculation problems

SSRIs are more likely than some antidepressants to cause sexual side effects. They can also increase appetite, potentially leading to weight gain.

Like SSRIs, SNRIs are often used to treat MDD. Similar to SSRIs, SNRIs prevent cells in your brain from reabsorbing certain neurotransmitters. This leaves more of them available to communicate with other cells.

In the case of SNRIs, the neurotransmitters affected are serotonin and norepinephrine.

SNRI antidepressants include:

  • desvenlafaxine (Khedezla, Pristiq)
  • duloxetine (Cymbalta)
  • levomilnacipran (Fetzima)
  • milnacipran (Savella)
  • venlafaxine (Effexor XR)

SNRIs are often used to treat depression, but they can also help with:

  • nerve damage caused by diabetes
  • fibromyalgia
  • generalized anxiety disorder
  • hot flashes

Common side effects

The more common side effects of SNRIs include:

  • headaches
  • nausea
  • insomnia
  • drowsiness
  • dry mouth
  • dizziness
  • loss of appetite
  • constipation
  • sexual problems such as low sex drive, erectile dysfunction, or ejaculation problems
  • weakness and fatigue
  • sweating

SNRIs can cause sexual side effects, but not as often as SSRIs. Some people who take SNRIs may also gain weight, but weight loss is more common.

In some cases, people taking SNRIs may notice increased blood pressure.

TCAs are an older group of antidepressants. Like SNRIs, they help to increase levels of norepinephrine and serotonin your brain. But they also decrease the effects of another neurotransmitter called acetylcholine.

This impact on acetylcholine increases the risk of certain side effects. As a result, TCAs are typically only used if SSRIs and SNRIs don’t work well for you.

Some common TCAs include:

  • amitriptyline (Elavil)
  • clomipramine (Anafranil)
  • desipramine (Norpramin)
  • doxepin
  • imipramine (Tofranil)
  • nortriptyline (Pamelor)

In addition to treating depression, many TCAs are used for other conditions, including:

  • nerve pain caused by shingles
  • nerve damage caused by diabetes
  • social anxiety disorder
  • fibromyalgia
  • migraine headache
  • bedwetting in children

Common side effects

The more common side effects of TCAs include:

  • headaches
  • dry mouth
  • blurred vision
  • digestive issues, such as stomach upset, nausea, and constipation
  • dizziness
  • drowsiness
  • trouble sleeping
  • memory problems
  • fatigue
  • weight gain
  • sexual problems such as low sex drive, erectile dysfunction, or ejaculation problems
  • trouble urinating
  • fast heart rate
  • sweating

The side effects of TCAs are similar to those of SSRIs and SNRIs, but they tend to occur more frequently and can be more bothersome.

TCAs are also much more likely to cause certain side effects, including:

  • dry mouth
  • blurred vision
  • constipation
  • trouble urinating
  • weight gain
  • drowsiness

In rare cases, TCAs can also cause potentially dangerous heart-related side effects, such as:

  • low blood pressure when standing up
  • high blood pressure
  • abnormal heart rate or arrhythmia

Like TCAs, MAOIs are an older group of medications. Today, they’re not commonly used for depression, but your healthcare provider might suggest them if others aren’t offering relief.

MAOIs work by preventing your body from breaking down certain neurotransmitters. This causes an increase in your levels of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine.

Some common MAOIs include:

  • isocarboxazid (Marplan)
  • phenelzine (Nardil)
  • tranylcypromine (Parnate)
  • selegiline (Eldepryl, Emsam)

In addition to depression, some MAOIs are used for other conditions. Phenelzine and tranylcypromine are sometimes used for panic disorder and social anxiety. Selegiline is used for Parkinson’s disease.

Common side effects

The more common side effects of MAOIs include:

  • low blood pressure
  • nausea
  • headaches
  • drowsiness
  • dizziness
  • dry mouth
  • weight gain
  • stomach pain
  • confusion
  • diarrhea
  • runny nose
  • sexual problems such as low sex drive, erectile dysfunction, or ejaculation problems

MAOIs are more likely to cause low blood pressure than other antidepressants. These medications can also interact with foods containing tyramine and cause dangerously high blood pressure.

SARIs are also known as serotonin modulators or phenylpiperazine antidepressants. They’re sometimes considered atypical antidepressants because they work differently. SARIs can help treat:

  • depression
  • anxiety
  • panic disorder

Like most other antidepressants, SARIs help to increase the amount of available serotonin — and sometimes other neurotransmitters — in your brain. But they do so in different ways from other antidepressants.

Some SARIs include:

  • nefazodone
  • trazodone (Oleptro)

Common side effects

The more common side effects of SARIs include:

  • drowsiness
  • dry mouth
  • headaches
  • dizziness
  • nausea
  • fatigue
  • vomiting
  • blurred vision
  • diarrhea
  • constipation
  • low blood pressure
  • confusion

Many people taking SARIs experience drowsiness or sleepiness. This makes them a potentially good option for people with insomnia, especially if they also have depression.

Some antidepressants simply don’t fit into any of the main group, usually because of the way they work. These are known as atypical antidepressants.

Bupropion (Wellbutrin)

Unlike most other antidepressants, bupropion doesn’t increase serotonin. Instead, it works to increase norepinephrine and dopamine. It’s sometimes classified as a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor.

In addition to being used for depression, bupropion is also used to help people quit smoking.

The more common side effects of bupropion include:

  • trouble sleeping
  • headaches
  • irritability or agitation
  • dry mouth
  • constipation
  • loss of appetite
  • weight loss
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • sweating
  • dizziness
  • anxiety

Compared with other antidepressants, bupropion is less likely to cause weight gain. In fact, weight loss is a common side effect.

Bupropion is also less likely to cause sexual problems. As a result, it’s sometimes prescribed alongside other antidepressants to reduce their sexual side effects.

But it’s more likely than some other antidepressants to cause insomnia and anxiety. In rare cases, bupropion can cause seizures, especially when used in high doses.

Mirtazapine (Remeron)

Mirtazapine increases the effects of norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine in your brain in a different way than other antidepressants. It’s sometimes classified as a noradrenergic antagonist-specific serotonin antagonist.

The more common side effects of mirtazapine include:

  • drowsiness
  • dry mouth
  • increased appetite
  • weight gain
  • high cholesterol
  • constipation
  • weakness and fatigue
  • dizziness

Like SARIs, mirtazapine may cause sleepiness or drowsiness. As a result, mirtazapine may be used for those who have depression and trouble sleeping.

Mirtazapine can also cause increased appetite, making it more likely to cause weight gain than other antidepressants.

Vilazodone (Viibryd)

Vilazodone increases serotonin’s effects in the brain in ways both similar to and different from SSRIs. It’s sometimes called a serotonin partial agonist reuptake inhibitor.

The more common side effects of vilazodone include:

  • diarrhea
  • nausea
  • dizziness
  • dry mouth
  • trouble sleeping
  • vomiting

Vilazodone is less likely to cause weight gain than many other antidepressants, such as SSRIs and TCAs. Some people who take vilazodone have sexual problems, such as low sex drive or erectile dysfunction, but this seems to be less common with vilazodone compared to SSRIs and SNRIs.

Vortioxetine (Trintellix)

Vortioxetine is sometimes called a multimodal antidepressant. It functions somewhat like an SSRI, but has additional effects on serotonin levels.

The more common side effects of vortioxetine include:

  • sexual problems, such as orgasm or ejaculation problems
  • nausea
  • diarrhea
  • dizziness
  • dry mouth
  • constipation
  • vomiting

Vortioxetine is more likely to cause sexual side effects than many other antidepressants. But it’s less likely to cause weight gain.

The chart below is a general comparison of the some of the more common side effects associated with different antidepressants.

When using this chart, keep a few things in mind:

  • Everyone responds differently to antidepressants, so you may have additional side effects not listed here.
  • You likely won’t experience every single side effect associated with a particular antidepressant.
  • Some medications are more or less likely to cause certain side effects. Your healthcare provider can give you more information about common side effects linked to specific medications within each group.
  • Some side effects may become milder or disappear completely over time as your body gets used to the medication.
  • This chart only includes common side effects. Some antidepressants may have less common, more serious side effects, including increased suicidal thoughts.

Side effectSSRIsSNRIsTCAsMAOIsSARIsbupropionmirtazapinevilazodonevortioxetine
headache X X X X X X
diarrhea X X X X X X
dry mouth X X X X X X X X X
fatigue X X X X X X X
sweating X X X X
dizziness X X X X X X X X
blurred vision X X X
sexual issues X X X X X X
drowsiness X X X X X X X
insomnia X X X X X
weight gain X X X X X
weight loss X X X

Some antidepressants, including SSRIs, may cause an increase in suicidal thoughts or actions. This risk is higher in children, teenagers, and young adults. It’s also higher within the first few months of treatment or during dosage changes.

You and your family members, caregivers, and healthcare provider should watch for any new or sudden changes in your mood, behaviors, thoughts, or feelings. Call your healthcare provider right away if you notice any changes.

Suicide prevention

If you think someone is at immediate risk of self-harm or hurting another person:

  • Call 911 or your local emergency number.
  • Stay with the person until help arrives.
  • Remove any guns, knives, medications, or other things that may cause harm.
  • Listen, but don’t judge, argue, threaten, or yell.

If you or someone you know is considering suicide, get help from a crisis or suicide prevention hotline. Try the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 800-273-8255.

There are many types of antidepressants. Each comes with its own list of potential side effects. When choosing and trying an antidepressant, it’s important to work closely with your healthcare provider, especially as you get used to a medication’s side effects.

Before starting any new medication, let your healthcare provider know about any other medications you take, including over-the-counter drugs and herbal supplements, such as St. John’s wort. If you drink alcohol, make sure to also ask about any potential interactions it might have with your medication.

In addition to side effects, antidepressants can also cause allergic reactions in some people. Seek immediate medical treatment if you notice any symptoms of a severe allergic reaction, such as difficulty breathing or swelling in your face, tongue, or throat.

list of the best drugs without prescriptions

Can I buy antidepressants without prescriptions? What mood improvers are most effective, when will lighter drugs help, and when powerful ones are needed, how do they affect the body, and can they be taken on their own? The main thing when choosing a medicine is not to harm your health.

I'm depressed!

This can often be heard from friends or read on the forum. But, as a rule, the person making such statements is mistaken. After all, what is meant by "depression" in a colloquial environment? Usually it means just a short-term deterioration in mood, irritability, fatigue under the influence of circumstances. Sometimes a person just has a "bad day" or "gets up on the wrong foot" and calls it depression.

Nowadays, people are constantly faced with stress: overload at work, a frantic pace of life, excessive demands on themselves, a huge amount of information that flows from all sources. It is not surprising that many people cannot cope with so many stressors, and this can manifest itself in various symptoms:

  • anxiety;
  • irritability;
  • fatigue;
  • sleep disorders;
  • obsessive thoughts;
  • panic attacks.

If these symptoms are short-lived and go away on their own, don't get too upset. In most cases, they will be defeated by just a good rest. But sometimes vacation is not enough, and the body needs a little help. It is very important to choose the right medicines for this.

What depression really is

This is a long-term (2 weeks or more) pronounced decrease in mood, which is accompanied by several additional symptoms: decrease in activity, slowing down of mental activity, lack of joy from life. That is, if you are no longer touched by the usual joys - hobbies, family, gatherings with friends, then this is an occasion to think, observe your condition and, possibly, consult a doctor.

If you are no longer touched by the usual joys, then this is an occasion to think and, perhaps, consult a doctor.

True depression is a serious and often serious illness that requires mandatory treatment by a psychiatrist with the appointment of special medications.

What drugs are used to treat depression?

They are collectively called antidepressants. It is worth noting that in recent years the indications for prescribing antidepressants have expanded significantly. Numerous studies have been conducted that have shown the effectiveness of antidepressants not only for depression, but also for anxiety, sleep disorders (insomnia), neurosis, and even neuropathic pain. Today, drugs from different groups of antidepressants are widely prescribed by psychiatrists, neurologists, and even therapists.

Two groups of drugs are most commonly used.

Tricyclic antidepressants

These are the oldest drugs that are considered the most powerful:

  • Amitriptyline is a drug with a strong sedative and powerful antidepressant effect. Large doses are used to treat severe depression, and small doses are used for milder disorders. It relieves anxiety and has a hypnotic effect.
  • Anafranil is a balanced drug, usually better tolerated than amitriptyline, and also relieves anxiety well. It is prescribed for the treatment of depression from mild to severe, various anxiety disorders.
  • Melipramine - has a stimulating effect, they treat apathetic depression.

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)

This is a more modern group of drugs. Their advantages are good tolerability and few or no side effects.

Often prescribed from this group:

  • Fevarin - has anti-anxiety and good antidepressant effect. With prolonged use, it normalizes sleep, if it has been disturbed.

  • Zoloft is a fairly strong daytime antidepressant. It relieves anxiety, obsessive thoughts, while not causing drowsiness.
  • Paxil - relieves anxiety, often prescribed for the treatment of panic attacks.

There are many more modern antidepressants that have few side effects and are well tolerated:

  • Ixel;
  • Velaxin;
  • Valdoxan;
  • Trittiko;
  • Simbalta and others.

But strong antidepressants are not sold without a prescription . They can only be prescribed by a doctor: a psychiatrist, a neurologist, sometimes a therapist.

Why can't I take antidepressants without a prescription?
  • Only a doctor can assess the risk of side effects for a particular patient.
  • Different antidepressants have different nuances of therapeutic action. If the medicine is chosen incorrectly, at best it will not help, at worst it will hurt.
  • Dose selection is carried out individually. If you increase the dose too quickly on your own, you can experience a lot of unpleasant consequences.
  • Cancellation should also be carried out gradually and under the supervision of a physician. Otherwise, you risk getting a withdrawal syndrome.

What to do?

There are a number of drugs available without a prescription. They are not effective for clinical depression, but they will help to cope with stress, short-term sleep disorders and irritability. With their help, you can try to alleviate your psycho-emotional state a little:

  • Glycine is one of the most popular products. It is prescribed, starting from childhood, with stress, overwork, emotional overstrain. Sometimes effective for minor sleep disturbances.
  • Afobazole . Has an anti-anxiety effect, eliminates the feeling of fear, tearfulness, irritability. It is used in the treatment of vegetative-vascular dystonia and even in alcoholism, to alleviate the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal. Not addictive. It should be borne in mind that children under 18 years of age are contraindicated.
  • Novo-passit . Quite a strong sedative for nervousness and irritability. Effective in reducing concentration, memory, fatigue. Helps to restore the nervous system during periods of increased stress.
Over-the-counter medications won't help with clinical depression, but they can alleviate the psycho-emotional state.
  • Stressovit . Well calms, relieves irritability, anxiety, improves sleep. It is not recommended to drive a car and other activities that require increased concentration of attention during the period of treatment.
  • Persen is a herbal medicine. Contains extracts of valerian, lemon balm and peppermint. It has a calming and anti-anxiety effect. It helps well with increased excitability, emotional lability, tearfulness. It can be used in the complex therapy of mild anxiety depressive disorders, facilitates the withdrawal of potent drugs.
  • Magne B6 . Increases the body's resistance to stress. Magnesium deficiency can lead to an imbalance of the nervous system, irritability, sleep disturbances, so Magne B6 has a positive effect in these cases.
  • Tenoten . It has an anti-anxiety, calming, anti-asthenic effect, helps to cope with stress and psycho-emotional stress. Relieves irritability and tension. Can be used in neurotic conditions.

When should I see a doctor?
  • If the decrease in mood persists for more than two weeks, and attempts at self-treatment have not been effective.
  • If you have thoughts about not wanting to live or suicidal thoughts.
  • If depression significantly disrupts the usual course of life: you cannot work, fully communicate with your family, enjoy what used to bring joy.

You can consult a psychiatrist in confidence. Information about the very fact of treatment, not to mention the diagnosis and treatment, is a medical secret: they are not reported to work, they are not disclosed. It is better to diagnose depression on time and start treatment than to bring it to advanced stages.


  1. Bauer M., Pfennig A., Severus E., Vaibrau P.S., Angst J., Muller H. Clinical recommendations of the World Federation of Biological Psychiatry on Biological Therapy of Unipolar Depressive Disorders Part 1: Acute and Acute and Acute CONTINUOUS TREATMENT OF UNIPOLAR DEPRESSIVE DISORDERS AS OF 2013//CURRENT THERAPY OF MENTAL DISORDERS Number: 4 Year: 2015 Pages: 33-40
  2. Antidepressant therapy and other treatments for depressive disorders. Report of the CINP Working Group based on a review of the evidence. M., 2008; 215 p.

Which antidepressants are the most effective?

Today, antidepressants are the only way for many people to deal with anxiety and stress. Despite the fact that the development of these drugs began in the 50s of the last century, scientists still do not know exactly how some antidepressants work. But the fact that for many people they are effective is beyond doubt, otherwise these drugs simply would not be taken by anyone. However, some antidepressants are considered more than "clean" due to fewer side effects.

Scientists distinguish between weak and strong antidepressants


  • 1 Who invented antidepressants
  • 2 How do antidepressants help to cope with stress?
  • 3 Most Effective Antidepressants
    • 3. 1 Is Amitriptyline the Best Antidepressant?
    • 3.2 Agomelatine is an antidepressant with fewer side effects
  • 4 Side effects of antidepressants

Who invented antidepressants

Researchers from New York back in 1951 found a link between a person's depression and their brain activity. The discovery was made by chance, when after taking a drug called iproniazid, tuberculosis patients suddenly appeared in a good mood. It was logical to assume that if you learn to control the brain processes that are responsible for stress (more precisely, suppress them), you can alleviate the symptoms of depression.

Since then, millions of Americans and residents of other countries have become addicted to antidepressants. For example, one of the most popular, approved for sale at 1998, is Prozac .

How do antidepressants help with stress?

In fact, there is no definite answer to this question yet. Scientists are still doing a lot of research to find out how these drugs help people feel happier. One of the recent experiments was conducted by scientists from Yale and Manchester Universities - they examined MRI images of depressed patients a week after starting antidepressants using machine learning. The neural network analyzed the connections of the entire brain, as well as the connections of specific areas of the cortex and subcortical structures with each other.

After patients took antidepressants with serotonin, the drug strengthened connections between brain networks responsible for attention, while at the same time weakening areas of the brain's passive work. Moreover, the processes on MRI were noticeable even before the appearance of the therapeutic effect of antidepressants.

Blue shows weakening of connections in the brain, red shows strengthening

Then they studied the effectiveness of antidepressants compared with placebo. Those who took an antidepressant, were twice as likely to say that felt better than those who took a placebo. At the same time, scientists noticed that the drug first of all removes anxiety, and only then depression. Nevertheless, as a result, its intake leads to an improvement in a person’s mood.

The most effective antidepressants

In 2018, another team of scientists did a massive job comparing 522 studies involving more than 116,000 people to find out which antidepressants are the most effective and have the fewest side effects. As a result, they noted at least two drugs.

Is amitriptyline the best antidepressant?

In study , amitriptyline , from the group of tricyclic antidepressants, was the most effective among the drugs studied by scientists. It reduces anxiety and general irritability, and also minimizes or completely eliminates the symptoms of depression - it all depends on the individual.

Amitriptyline is popular in many countries due to its strong effect

In addition, drugs based on serotonin . It is this group of drugs that is considered one of the most promising. At the same time, scientists do not exclude the effective action of other drugs, since, depending on the physiological characteristics of a person and the degree of depression, different antidepressants are prescribed.

Do not take antidepressants without prior approval from your physician . In medical institutions, drugs are selected for each patient individually.

Agomelatine is an antidepressant with fewer side effects

Researchers have noted that this drug stimulates melatonin receptors, which can also relieve anxiety attacks and reduce symptoms of depression. At the same time, agomelatine is not such a "strong" antidepressant, so it belongs to the category of "soft" drugs with the least side effects. However, even before taking "light" antidepressants, it is still necessary to consult a doctor.

Scientists have long been testing serotonin-based antidepressants as a possible cure for autism. It is believed that they block the spread of the substance in the neurons of the brain. However, antidepressants like fluoxetine (Prozac) have been shown to be ineffective in reducing autism symptoms in several studies.

Prozac is widely used in the USA

Side effects of antidepressants

According to scientists from the US state of Illinois, the main side effects are observed not when taking antidepressants (only if it is not an overdose), but when they are canceled. When people stop taking antidepressants, they may experience headaches, insomnia, anxiety, and other unpleasant symptoms.

The problem with antidepressants is that they are highly addictive , which many doctors do not even warn patients about.

According to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in 1999, about 7.7% of Americans aged 13 and older were taking anti-depression medication daily. Today, antidepressants are taken every day by 12.7% of the population of countries.

Therefore, there are many supporters of non-drug treatment of depression among medical professionals, from therapy with psychologists to natural methods.

Learn more