What boundaries mean

Boundary Definition & Meaning - Merriam-Webster

bound·​ary ˈbau̇n-d(ə-)rē 

: something that indicates or fixes a limit or extent

Those two trees mark the boundary of our property.

the mountain range that forms the country's northern boundary




boundarylessness noun


  • bound
  • cap
  • ceiling
  • confines
  • end
  • extent
  • limit
  • limitation
  • line
  • termination

See all Synonyms & Antonyms in Thesaurus 

Example Sentences

Those two trees mark the boundary of our property. The river forms the country's western boundary. at the boundary between fact and fiction You need to set boundaries with your children. Did he violate the boundaries of the doctor-patient relationship?

Recent Examples on the Web The planes are also crossing the median line, an unofficial boundary in the Taiwan Strait, far more frequently than in the past. —Jennifer Jett, NBC News, 3 Feb. 2023 Flight paths that cross an unofficial boundary running down the middle of the Taiwan Strait, unheard of before 2021, had become routine by the end of 2022. —Pei-lin Wu, Washington Post, 30 Jan. 2023 When Sean finds himself without a place to live, Jimmy moves him into his pool house, alarming the neighborhood Karen (Sean is Black), briefly discomfiting Alice and dismaying his colleagues for having crashed through an ethical boundary. —Robert Lloydtelevision Critic, Los Angeles Times, 27 Jan. 2023 Monday, 47 of the Chinese planes crossed the median of the Taiwan Strait, an unofficial boundary once tacitly accepted by both sides, according to Taiwan’s Ministry of National Defense.Fox News, 29 Dec. 2022 Reformers say an upper boundary – or tying the size of tax breaks to the number of jobs created – would generate more money for local governments and reduce big tech companies’ ability to demand unlimited tax breaks. —oregonlive, 8 Sep. 2022 The yard has a patio, which has served nicely for large outdoor parties, space for an in-ground pool if the next owners wish to add this feature, and an electronic pet boundary. —James Alexander, Hartford Courant, 12 Apr. 2022 That creates room for more subtle judgments that can place content on a spectrum of trustworthiness, rather than trying to police an ephemeral boundary between information and misinformation. —Gilad Edelman, Wired, 1 Sep. 2021 The primary concern for Thursday is a weakening cold front being pushed across the nation, the boundary of which could be close to the spaceport during the launch window, and could violate cloud and lightning rules. —Richard Tribou, Orlando Sentinel, 25 Jan. 2023 See More

These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word 'boundary.' Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Send us feedback.

Word History


bound entry 6 + -ary entry 1

First Known Use

1598, in the meaning defined above

Time Traveler

The first known use of boundary was in 1598

See more words from the same year

Dictionary Entries Near


bound and gagged


boundary condition

See More Nearby Entries 

Cite this Entry



“Boundary.Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/boundary. Accessed 21 Feb. 2023.

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Kids Definition



bound·​ary ˈbau̇n-d(ə-)rē 

: something that points out or shows a limit or end : dividing line

Legal Definition




: a theoretical line that marks the limit of an area of land

More from Merriam-Webster on


Nglish: Translation of boundary for Spanish Speakers

Britannica English: Translation of boundary for Arabic Speakers

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Merriam-Webster unabridged

What are my boundaries? - love is respect

When you think of a boundary, what comes to mind? You might think of something like a property line or the defining lines of a shape. Boundaries show where one thing ends and another begins. Boundaries in a relationship are kind of like this; they help each person figure out where one person ends and the other begins. In short, boundaries help you define what you are comfortable with and how you would like to be treated by others. They apply to any kind of relationship you have – whether with a friend, family member, partner or anyone else in your life.

What are my boundaries?

Even though we talk about them in relation to other people, in some ways boundaries are really about your relationship with yourself; they help you honor your needs, goals, feelings and values. Boundaries can be emotional, physical or even digital. Some examples of personal boundaries might be:

  • I’m cool with following each other on social media, but not with sharing passwords
  • I’m comfortable kissing and holding hands, but not in public
  • I’m okay with regularly texting, but I don’t want to text multiple times in an hour
  • I want to spend time with my friends/family on weekends
  • I need quiet time to myself every day
  • I’m comfortable with some touching, but I’m not ready to have sex

It can be helpful to think through your own boundaries, no matter what your relationship status is. Start by paying attention to how you feel about and react to situations around you, whether in real life or in shows or movies you watch. What makes you feel uncomfortable? What’s important to you? What do you want to keep private? Is there any type of behavior or trait that would not fly with you, ever (sometimes called a “dealbreaker”)? It might be helpful to write down some of your thoughts.

Communicating boundaries

How can you and your partner know each other’s boundaries? By talking about them! Communication is really key in a healthy relationship, and boundaries are an important part of an ongoing conversation between you and your partner. Talking about boundaries can happen whenever, wherever! If your partner does something that you like or don’t like, let them know. A simple, “Hey, I really like it when you…” or “I’m not comfortable when we…” lets them know what’s up. In a healthy relationship, partners respect each other’s boundaries once they’ve been communicated. And if you’re ever not clear on your partner’s boundaries, just ask! Questions like “Is this okay?” or “Are you cool with this?” can help jumpstart the conversation. Just remember: if you don’t want to talk about your boundaries with your partner because you’re afraid they’ll react with anger or violence, that’s a warning sign that your relationship might be unhealthy or abusive.

Healthy vs. unhealthy boundaries

How do you know if a boundary is healthy…or not? It’s important to recognize that healthy boundaries help to protect and respect you; an unhealthy boundary seeks to control or harm someone else. A healthy boundary would be: “I need space to hang out with my friends and do things I enjoy on my own.” But if your partner says, “I need you to stop talking to other guys/girls because you might cheat/I get jealous,” that’s not a healthy boundary; it’s a warning sign that your partner may have some trust issues and is trying to control who you hang out with. Here are some more great examples of healthy/unhealthy boundaries!

Can boundaries change?

Can your boundaries change over time? Yes! It’s normal for boundaries to shift as we gain more life experience or get more comfortable in our relationships. We might not be okay with something at the beginning of a relationship, but we might be totally cool with it a few months down the line. On the other hand, we might realize something crosses a boundary for us after experiencing it for the first time. Every person has the right to change their mind about what their boundaries are at any time. What’s important is that you’re communicating any boundary changes to your partner and you’re making changes because YOU want to, not because you’re being pressured, forced or manipulated into making them.

You deserve to be safe and respected, and boundaries play a big part in creating healthy relationships that let you be YOU. If you still have questions about setting your own boundaries, we can help you think through them.  Call, chat or text with a loveisrespect advocate any time.

Answers shouldn’t be hard to find.

We're here to help!

Blood pressure normal, blood pressure measurement

Blood pressure normal

Blood pressure is the blood pressure in the large human arteries. There are two indicators of blood pressure:

- Systolic (upper) blood pressure - at the time of maximum contraction of the heart;
- Diastolic (lower) blood pressure at the moment of maximum relaxation of the heart.

The blood pressure level is not a constant value - it fluctuates continuously depending on the influence of various factors. Blood pressure is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg). The normal range for systolic blood pressure is 115-130 mmHg. Normal diastolic blood pressure range 60 - 89mmHg.

Blood pressure measurement

Blood pressure measurement can be carried out both at rest and during physical or psycho-emotional stress, as well as in the intervals between different types of activity. Blood pressure is most often measured while sitting (back should be supported, as any form of isometric exercise causes an immediate increase in blood pressure) or lying down.

Blood pressure measurement requires rest (you can not talk and make sudden movements).

Increased blood pressure

Hypertension (arterial hypertension) - persistent increase in blood pressure in large arteries over 140/90 mm Hg. Increased blood pressure is the main risk factor for the development of vascular diseases of the brain, coronary heart disease, heart and kidney failure, and eye damage.

The main goal in the treatment of hypertension is not to bring down, but to gradually reduce blood pressure, striving to achieve a level of 120-130/80 mm Hg. Art. It is advisable for elderly patients to reduce blood pressure to higher values ​​(140-145 / 85-90 mmHg). An excessive decrease in blood pressure is dangerous for patients with arterial hypertension with hypertrophy of the left ventricle of the heart, coronary disease and cerebrovascular disease, as this worsens the blood supply to the vessels of the heart and brain.

Low blood pressure

Hypotension (arterial hypotension) - a persistent decrease in blood pressure below normal, low blood pressure. The magnitude of this decrease is individual, but usually below 100/60 mm Hg. Art. for men and 95/60 mmHg Art. for women.

The causes of low blood pressure can be different: dehydration, blood loss, heart failure, heart defects, poisoning, chronic infections (tuberculosis), tumors, hypovitaminosis, but the most common cause of hypotension is vegetovascular dystonia.

Low blood pressure is associated with impaired vascular tone. Normally, the vessels, if necessary, quickly narrow and expand, but in hypotensive patients this reaction is slow, which leads to insufficient blood flow to the organs and tissues. As a result, body systems and organs experience oxygen starvation and are unable to work optimally.

If blood pressure tends to persistently deviate from the norm, both upward and downward, observation and examination by a general practitioner is necessary in order to select an adequate complex treatment using drug and non-drug methods of therapy.

Consultation of a general practitioner

Make an appointment with a general practitioner

The clinic conducts appointments under a voluntary medical insurance policy (VMI). View a list of insurance companies.

Land boundary turning points

Land boundary turning points

Some citizens, little familiar with geodesy and cartography, think that all areas should look like clear geometric shapes. But every memory has its own characteristic configuration, and it is not always an even rectangle with four lines and an angle between them of 90 degrees.

It is curious that the generating lines that determine the shape of the site may not even be four at all, as is commonly believed, but more.

When any of the lines forming the boundary ends, another immediately begins, and between them there is a point characterized as a turning (i.e. characteristic) point of the memory.

Looking at the boundary plan, you can easily determine the location of such turning points between the drawn lines.

Thus, the construction of the boundary of the site just relies on such established points. First, such turning points are determined using various methods, and then the boundary is indicated by drawing straight lines between the characteristic designations.

Assignment of turning points

The main purpose of turning points is to designate the coordinates of the passage of boundary lines, i. e. a specific indication of where the borders will pass.

On the basis of the documents provided and the measurements and calculations carried out, the engineer who performs the surveying procedure and the execution of the surveying case determines the coordinates of the turning points, and then, drawing straight lines between them, marks the specific boundaries of the memory.

Note that it is impossible to first draw lines and only after that mark the boundaries, since the line can be determined by the coordinates of the beginning and end, and without accurate information for each of them it will be impossible to draw between the site.


Russian legislation provides for the procedure for determining the boundaries of the land plot, which consists, in particular, in the preparation by a cadastral engineer of a boundary file and its transfer to the cadastral chamber of Rosreestr. If, when applying to Rosreestr, not enough data was provided to determine the boundary, then the failure to satisfy the claims is legitimate, since the plaintiff chose the wrong way to protect the right, since there is no dispute with the owners of neighboring land plots to establish the boundaries of the land plot (see the Appellate ruling of the Moscow City Court dated August 4 2020, case No. 33-27040/2020).

Consider how to determine the turning points of the boundaries of the land. After carrying out calculations, determining the exact values, placing them on the ground, as well as coordinating the boundaries with the owners and users of neighboring storage facilities, the coordinates of the land plot by points are established in kind.

That is, the engineer actually sets milestones, when drawing lines through which a boundary of the memory is formed.

Only a cadastral engineer with the appropriate qualifications can take out the points of the turning coordinates of the site.

Even if the landowner or his neighbor does not agree with the location of the boundary and believes that their interests are affected, it will not be possible to independently move such designations on the memory itself.

To dispute the coordinates, you will have to apply either to the organization that established the land surveying points (there is 30 days for this), or to the court if information about the site has already been entered in the state register.

In the case of unauthorized transfer of points in one direction or another, the person who committed this action may be held liable. In such cases, you will have to pay a fine.

Turning points are needed to indicate the coordinates of the boundary lines. They are installed by a cadastral engineer. Our lawyers will help you establish the coordinates of turning points, and, if necessary, file a claim with the court with the appropriate requirement. We work remotely, 24/7.

Border coordinates

When considering the concept of coordinates of the boundaries of the memory, the concept of “boundary coordinates” is simultaneously used. In accordance with Russian legislation governing state cadastral activities, data on each allocated plot is subject to entry into a single state register. registry.

Documents that provide such information always contain information on border coordinates. That is, such plans contain characteristic features - such data that distinguish them from any other memory anywhere in the world and, thus, make it possible to locate the allotment in order to obtain ownership of it.

From a mathematical point of view, it is impossible to establish the coordinates, since the location and direction of the boundary of the ZU is determined by single points, the coordinates of which are an indicator of where the boundary will pass.

Thus, when applying the concept of “boundary coordinates”, you automatically mean the coordinates of turning points or determining the coordinates of the characteristic points of the boundaries of the land.

In addition to the direct coordinates of the ZU turning points, in accordance with the current legislation, when making boundaries in kind, additional designations are also used, installed on a straight line that connects the characteristic points of the ZU.

Such a requirement exists due to a certain length of straight lines, when, due to external factors, it can repeatedly break.

Such additional designations are placed in the range from one to 200 m, i. e. at least every 200 m, a boundary mark must be set without fail, and at the same time, it cannot be located more often than one meter.

The installation of additional signs is also carried out by the cadastral engineer after the procedure of coordination with all existing interested parties and the signing of the relevant act by them.

Sample Application

The act of agreeing on the boundaries of the allotment with neighbors: a form, an example of filling


Coordinates of turning points

The coordinates of the points are such a digital designation of the location of the points of the site on the ground, when drawing a line between which a closed figure is created, which determines the boundary between the memory.

Then this closed area is subject to the determination of the area, based on the configuration of the memory itself and the parameters in accordance with which the calculations are made.

The system of activities of the state cadastre includes all information about the boundaries of the memory. The border coordinates themselves are of little use to ordinary citizens who are not particularly familiar with cartography and geodesy.

The values ​​are converted using specialized codes, and every cadastral engineer with knowledge in this area can easily determine and verify the actual location of the storage facility on the ground and establish boundaries between points.

Since the catalog of coordinates of turning points is made in the form of coded values, and the definition itself is associated with the use of special equipment and complex mathematical formulas, the calculation of characteristic points is approached very carefully, constantly improving the methods for their determination, rendering or recalculation.

Point coordinates allow you to define the boundaries of the land. Our lawyers will help you to do this remotely, prepare the necessary documents, tell you which authorities and which specialists you should contact.

Methods for determining coordinates

To determine the coordinates, engineers who perform the work of creating plans, producing a procedure, use a number of effective methods. Next, we will talk about five such methods used in Russia.

Important! After determining the points and before transferring them to topographic documents, the data are described in a system of special coordinates, which is provided specifically for cadastral designations.


This method is a combination of several methods, which you will learn about by studying the table below:

Geodesic method




It makes it possible to create a reference network of geodetic points, on which the determination of the coordinates of the turning points of the memory is built, between which there is a boundary.


This is a measurement on the ground of the lengths of lines that consistently connect certain points and objects and, in the process of their construction, form the so-called polygonometric code.


It is based on determining the position of geodetic points by building a system of triangles adjacent to each other on the ground.


This method is based on determining the coordinates of each individual point by measuring the elements that link its location with individual points.

By satellite geodetic measurements

This method is similar to the principle of geodetic, but it also contains information about the conduct of surveys of the area using satellites. Thus, high accuracy of measurements is achieved.

The coordinates of turning or characteristic points obtained by means of a satellite are rarely incorrectly determined.


This method is based on the use of the cartometric method in the course of work and the parallel use of aerial photographs, reduced to the appropriate scale of the map.

Due to the fact that the creation of such images in some way affects property rights, this technique is rarely used.


This method is based on the use of cartographic material - topographic maps, plans of districts and cities, which are created by individual municipalities.

After the engineer has calculated the coordinates of the points, he displays them on such a map, and then directly reading the existing map, he determines the location of the points and makes the boundaries of the memory in kind.


This method is used to determine the coordinates and is based on obtaining the results of calculating the lines and angles of the memory using analytical geometry, special trigonometry formulas, etc.

This method is currently widely used. It is best to use it in the presence of appropriate software that ensures the accuracy of the obtained values.


When calculating coordinates, such a concept as the accuracy of certain coordinates, as well as their error, is used.

Note that the legislation of our country establishes permissible deviations from the actual values, allowing you to use the received coordinates as valid points and set them in kind.

The role of precision and error

The accuracy of the obtained measurements has a significant impact on the possibility of determining the existing boundary of the GS and indicating information about the characteristic points of the boundary.

The error is the difference (i.e. difference) between the actual values ​​​​and those that were obtained by engineers as a result of the calculations made.

The error can easily arise due to certain factors, among which the human factor is most often in the first place, when the error is made by the engineer himself.

The magnitude of the error, among other things, is influenced by such factors as out-of-service or low-quality equipment, unimportant weather conditions during the measurements, features of the topography of the memory surface, relative to which the coordinates are determined.

Small errors may occur during measurements and calculations. Our lawyers will help determine whether the engineer's mistakes are significant and tell you how to correct them. We work remotely 24/7.

Permissible errors

In accordance with the provisions of the current edition of the Labor Code of the Russian Federation, there is such a thing as an allowable measurement error. We are talking about points obtained within the limit of permissible values, which are used to determine the actual boundaries of the memory. In such a situation, for each individual site, depending on its category, a separate rule may apply.

The maximum permissible error for a memory within the Russian Federation is:

Allowable error


Memory allocated within the city

0. 1 m


ZU, on the territory of which cottages, garages, private household plots are located

0.2 m


Agricultural land

2.5 m

Modern measurement methods make it possible to achieve an error value of up to 0.05 m.

Important! If they go beyond such limits, but are within acceptable limits, a boundary plan for such points is still formed.

Litigation: delimitation of a property

Consider several real situations from judicial practice related to the determination of the boundaries of a land plot.

Situation #1

In the process of considering cases on the imposition of boundaries of plots, judges rely on the Land Code of the Russian Federation, as well as Federal Law No. 78-FZ “On Land Management”. Citizen D. filed a lawsuit with the court, because it turned out that the boundaries of her land plot turned out to be crossed with the territory that belongs to the legal entity. The company refused to voluntarily agree on the boundaries of the memory, the company's representatives did not appear in court. In her lawsuit, the plaintiff filed demands for recognition of the legality of establishing the boundaries of her lands and satisfaction in a request to put the land on state cadastral registration. During the consideration of the case, the judicial authority recognized the fact that the organization had violated the legal procedure for establishing land boundaries and satisfied the claims of citizen D. in full.

Situation #2

Citizens P. and B. found out that according to the cadastral documents for the land they own, the boundaries of these objects intersect. To resolve the situation and establish the exact boundaries of the territories, the owners of P. and B. went to court with a statement of claim, providing all the required papers. The judicial authority, in the process of considering this situation, used information from the archive cadastre, displaying data on the old borders of the territories belonging to P. and B., and ordered an independent examination in order to establish the boundary. As a result, after the measures taken, it was established that the boundaries were correctly fixed precisely in the documents of citizen B., while P. should make the appropriate corrections to his documents on the basis of a judicial act. P., in turn, did not raise any objections and complied with all court orders.

Situation #3

The Vologda District Court considered case No. 98-5427 / 2017. During the consideration, the plaintiff was refused to correct the discovered cadastral error. The reason for the refusal was that the plaintiff demanded to recognize the boundaries of the memory, and correcting the mistake made would not restore his right, so the court ultimately ruled in favor of the plaintiff. It is important to note that in this case, the plaintiff incorrectly stated the requirements without seeking legal assistance.

Situation #4

The Kaliningrad District Court considered case No. 14-77/2017. Citizen N. bought a land plot in his ownership and subsequently discovered the imposition of boundaries. Rosreestr did not have information about the owner of the neighboring plot, that is, in fact, this territory was the property of the district administration, which eventually became the defendant. In 2017, the boundary was determined, but they were in a different place formally. The judicial body studied all the documents submitted by the parties and made the following decision: the rights of citizen N. have been violated, therefore, the claims should be fully satisfied and the proper boundaries of the memory should be established.

Situation #5

The dispute on the establishment of the boundaries of the memory cannot lead to the resolution of the dispute on the right to the memory. Satisfaction of claims does not entail the termination of the defendant's rights to the territory and in no way contributes to the protection of the plaintiff's rights. In such cases, the plaintiff has the right to file an independent claim for the recovery of disputed property from illegal possession (Ruling of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation of December 19, 2016 No. 306-ES16-17004, case No. A12-26439 / 2014).

Situation #6

If, in accordance with the conclusion of a judicial land surveyor, it is impossible to determine the boundary (that is, to propose a suitable option for establishing boundaries) of the plaintiff's land, taking into account the existing use procedure, the requirements of sanitary and technical norms and rules, as well as intersections with the boundaries of the land, information about the location of which is contained in the USRN, the judicial authority, taking into account other important circumstances of the case, may decide in favor of the defendant. So, when considering the case, the court decided to take into account the conclusion of a forensic examination of a similar content, and also took into account that in the boundary plan and the conclusion of the cadastral engineer submitted by the plaintiff to the court there is no data on the reasons for imposing the plaintiff's memory on the defendants' memory, its exact characteristics, description, and also possible options for elimination, and that there are no certain cadastral (that is, boundary) errors that were made when determining the boundary and area of ​​the defendants' memory (Appeal ruling of the Moscow City Court of August 14, 2018, case No. 33-35691/2018).

    Read also How to determine the boundaries of the land plot

    by coordinates


    How to independently find the boundaries of the site by coordinates?


    To independently calculate the coordinates of the site, proceed as follows: go to the Rosreestr website and go to the PKK - Public Cadastral Map section. Find the toolbar in the top left corner. Then click on the "Magnifier" icon. A search bar should appear, which is needed to determine the location of registered land plots. Enter the cadastral number there and click on "Search". After that, the desired piece of land will appear on the map.

    What does land demarcation mean?


    This concept means the establishment of points directly on land ownership that determine the shape and boundaries of the territory, in accordance with the information specified in the documents. The result of such a procedure is the establishment of the exact area of ​​the land, its shape, specific boundaries, as well as the reliable location of land in the total land mass.

    How to find out the coordinates of the land plot by the cadastral number?


    The easiest way to obtain data on the boundaries of a land plot is to use the "Public Cadastral Map" service. On the official website of Rosreestr, you need to go to the section called "Electronic Services and Services". Then, in the search field of this service, you should enter the cadastral number of the land plot, and after that, information about the plot should appear in a separate window, including information about the presence or absence of coordinates of the boundaries of the land.

    What is the difference between surveying and clarifying the boundaries of a land plot?


    Clarification of the boundaries of a plot of land differs from land surveying only in that it is carried out in relation to previously recorded (meaning - registered) storage facilities. Other than that, the two procedures are exactly the same. The key task of clarifying the boundaries is to determine the actual boundary of the site that actually exists.

    In what case is the location of the boundaries of the land plot agreed?


    The location of the boundaries of the ZU is agreed if there are personal signatures of all interested persons or their representatives in the act of agreeing on the location of the boundaries. If the person concerned, who was duly notified, or his representative did not sign the act of agreeing on the location of the borders within the prescribed period or did not submit his objections in writing, then an appropriate entry will be made in the agreement act.

    Who carries out the surveying of the boundaries of the land?


    Land surveying is carried out by qualified cadastral engineers who have the appropriate certificates. These specialists make all the necessary measurements and required calculations. In accordance with Russian legislation, every cadastral engineer must be a member of a specialized SRO (self-regulatory organization). The activities of their members are under the control of the SRO. These organizations consider complaints of applicants if cadastral works were carried out with certain violations.

    What does a registered land plot mean on a public cadastral map?


    The status of the land plot record, designated as “accounted for”, indicates that a sufficient amount of data has been entered into the USRN to make it possible to determine the cadastral number, location, area, category and type of permitted use of land.

    What does the concept of broken land boundaries mean?


    The brokenness of the boundaries of the land plot is such contours of the territory that have a complex configuration, sharp or numerous angles, which cause certain inconveniences in the use of such lands.

    What does an area without boundary coordinates on a public map mean?


    If data on a real estate object was entered into the USRN, but the boundaries are not indicated, then such lands will not be displayed on the PKK - a public cadastral map. In this case, when searching for an object on the map by cadastral number or address, the corresponding inscription should appear in the information window - “Without border coordinates”.

    How quickly are changes made to the public cadastral map?


    Specialists of this department make changes to the USRN information within five working days from the date of submission of the relevant application.

    What does cadastral work consist of?


    We are talking about certain work with real estate objects, as a result of which documents are prepared containing information required for cadastral registration. Such work is carried out in relation to storage facilities, buildings, structures, premises, objects of construction in progress, as well as their parts or other objects, which must be put on the cadastral register without fail.

    How, by whom and in what order is the cadastral value of land plots determined?


    The cadastral value of objects is determined by engineers and specialists working in regional budget offices. The decision to conduct a state cadastral valuation is made by regional authorities or local governments. Having established the value, the specialist approves the corresponding results of the determination. The final cadastral value is approved by the executive body of state power of the constituent entity of the Russian Federation.

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