Foods raise serotonin levels
7 Foods That Could Boost Your Serotonin7 Foods That Could Boost Your Serotonin
Medically reviewed by Amy Richter, RD, Nutrition — By The Healthline Editorial Team — Updated on August 31, 2020
Serotonin is a chemical messenger that’s believed to act as a mood stabilizer. It’s said to help produce healthy sleeping patterns as well as boost your mood.
Research shows that serotonin levels can have an effect on mood and behavior, and the chemical is commonly linked to feeling good and living longer.
Supplements can increase your serotonin levels via the amino acid tryptophan. Serotonin is synthesized from tryptophan.
But for a more natural approach to possibly increasing your serotonin levels, you can try eating foods that contain tryptophan. It’s known that tryptophan depletion is seen in those with mood disorders such as depression and anxiety.
Research has also shown that when you follow a low-tryptophan diet, brain serotonin levels drop. However, research is ongoing to determine how much tryptophan-containing foods can affect serotonin levels in the brain.
Here are 7 foods that might help increase serotonin levels.
The protein in eggs can significantly boost your blood plasma levels of tryptophan, according to 2015 research.
Pro cooking tip: Don’t leave out the yolks!
Yolks are extremely rich in tryptophan, along with:
- omega-3 fatty acids
- other nutrients that are major contributors to the health benefits and antioxidant properties of eggs
Cheese is another great source of tryptophan. A yummy favorite you could make is mac and cheese that combines cheddar cheese with eggs and milk, which are also good sources of tryptophan.
Pineapples have been shown for decades to contain serotonin.
Note that while some other plants, like tomatoes, increase in serotonin as they ripen, that’s not the case with pineapples — so get them while they’re fresh!
Soy products are rich sources of tryptophan. You can substitute tofu for pretty much any protein, in pretty much any recipe, making it an excellent source of tryptophan for vegetarians and vegans.
Some tofu is calcium-set, which provides a great calcium boost.
It’s hard to go wrong with salmon, which — as you may have guessed — is also rich in tryptophan. Combine it with eggs and milk to make a smoked salmon frittata!
Salmon also has other nutritional benefits like helping balance cholesterol, lowering blood pressure, and being a good source of omega-3 fatty acids.
Pick and choose your faves, because all nuts and seeds contain tryptophan. Studies show that eating a handful of nuts a day may lower your mortality risk for cancer, heart disease, and respiratory problems.
Nuts and seeds are also good sources of fiber, vitamins, and antioxidants.
There’s a reason why the Thanksgiving meal is usually followed by a siesta on the couch — turkey is essentially stuffed tryptophan.
So the common belief is that by eating foods high in tryptophan, you can boost your serotonin levels. But is this true?
Foods high in protein, iron, riboflavin, and vitamin B6 all tend to contain large amounts of tryptophan. While foods high in this amino acid won’t boost serotonin on their own, there’s one possible cheat to this system: carbs.
Carbs cause the body to release more insulin, which promotes amino acid absorption and leaves tryptophan in the blood. If you mix high-tryptophan foods with carbs, you might get a serotonin boost.
The tryptophan you find in food has to compete with other amino acids to be absorbed into the brain, so it’s unlikely to have much of an effect on your serotonin levels. This differs from tryptophan supplements, which contain purified tryptophan and do have an effect on serotonin levels.
While they can’t compete with supplements — which you shouldn’t take without approval from your doctor — the foods listed above contain high amounts of tryptophan.
Your best chance at achieving a serotonin boost without using supplements is to eat them often, with a serving of healthy carbohydrates, like:
- whole grain bread
Food and supplements aren’t the only ways to boost serotonin levels.
- Exercise. Research shows that regular exercise can have antidepressant effects.
- Sunshine. Light therapy is a common remedy for seasonal depression. Research shows a clear relationship between being exposed to bright light and serotonin levels. To get better sleep, or to boost your mood, try to work in a daily lunchtime walk outside.
- Gut bacteria. Eat a high-fiber diet to fuel healthy gut bacteria, which research shows play a role in serotonin levels through the gut-brain axis. Supplemental probiotics may also be of value.
Last medically reviewed on August 29, 2018
How we vetted this article:
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Our experts continually monitor the health and wellness space, and we update our articles when new information becomes available.
Aug 31, 2020
The Healthline Editorial Team
Copy Edited By
Aug 29, 2018
Medically Reviewed By
Amy Richter, RD
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Medically reviewed by Amy Richter, RD, Nutrition — By The Healthline Editorial Team — Updated on August 31, 2020
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11 Ways to Raise Serotonin Levels Naturally
There are a number of ways to boost serotonin levels without medication including spending time outdoors, adjusting your diet, and more.
Serotonin is a neurotransmitter (chemical messenger) involved in many processes throughout your body, from regulating your mood to promoting smooth digestion.
It’s also known for:
- promoting good sleep by helping regulate circadian rhythms
- helping regulate appetite
- helping with learning and memory
- helping promote positive feelings and prosocial behavior
If you have low serotonin, you might:
- feel anxious, low, or depressed
- feel irritable or aggressive
- have sleep issues or feel fatigued
- feel impulsive
- have a decreased appetite
- experience nausea and digestive issues
- crave sweets and carbohydrate-rich foods
Read on to learn about different ways to increase serotonin naturally.
You can’t directly get serotonin from food, but you can get tryptophan, an amino acid that’s converted to serotonin in your brain. Tryptophan is found primarily in high protein foods, including turkey and salmon.
But it’s not as simple as eating tryptophan-rich foods, thanks to something called the blood-brain barrier. This is a protective sheath around your brain that controls what goes in and out of your brain.
In a nutshell, tryptophan-rich foods are usually higher in other types of amino acids. Because they’re more abundant, these other amino acids are more likely to cross the blood-brain barrier than tryptophan.
But there may be a way to bypass the system. Research suggests that eating carbs along with foods high in tryptophan may help more tryptophan make it into your brain.
Try consuming tryptophan-rich food with 25 to 30 grams of carbohydrates.
Snacking for serotonin
Here are some snack ideas to get you started:
- whole-wheat bread with turkey or cheese
- oatmeal with a handful of nuts
- salmon with brown rice
- plums or pineapple with your favorite crackers
- pretzel sticks with peanut butter and a glass of milk
Exercising triggers the release of tryptophan into your blood. It can also decrease the number of other amino acids. This creates an ideal environment for more tryptophan to reach your brain.
Aerobic exercise, at a level you’re comfortable with, seems to have the most effect, so dig out your old roller skates or try a dance class. The goal is to get your heart rate up.
Other good aerobic exercises include:
- brisk walking
- light hiking
Research suggests that serotonin tends to be lower after winter and higher in summer and fall. Serotonin’s impact on mood supports a link between this finding and the occurrence of seasonal affective disorder and mental health concerns linked to the seasons.
Spending time in the sunshine appears to help increase serotonin levels, and research exploring this idea suggests your skin may be able to synthesize serotonin.
To maximize these potential benefits, aim to:
- spend at least 10 to 15 minutes outside each day
- take your physical activity outside to help increase the serotonin boost brought on by exercise — just don’t forget to wear sunscreen if you’ll be out for longer than 15 minutes
If you live in a rainy climate, have a hard time getting outside, or have a high risk for skin cancer, you can still increase serotonin with bright light exposure from a light therapy box.
If you have bipolar disorder, talk with your mental health professional before trying a light therapy box. Using one incorrectly or for too long has triggeredmania in some people.
Spending time in nature has also been shown to increase serotonin. One study looked at the effects of forest therapy on middle-aged women and found that serotonin levels increased significantly after partaking in forest therapy.
Some dietary supplements may help jumpstart the production and release of serotonin by increasing tryptophan.
Before trying a new supplement, check with your healthcare professional. Notify them if you also take:
- prescription medication
- over-the-counter medication
- vitamins and supplements
- herbal remedies
Keep in mind that supplements are not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Always read the label and take the recommended dosage.
Research suggests the following supplements could help increase serotonin and reduce symptoms of depression.
Tryptophan supplements contain much more tryptophan than food sources, making them more likely to reach your brain. A 2021 review suggests tryptophan supplements can have improve mood and decrease anxiety, though more research is needed.
SAMe appears to help increase serotonin and may improve depression symptoms. Speak with a healthcare professional before taking it with any other supplements or medications that increase serotonin, including certain antidepressants and antipsychotics.
This supplement can easily enter your brain and produce serotonin. A 2016 study suggests it worked as effectively as antidepressants for those with early symptoms of depression. But other research on 5-HTP suggests longer treatment duration studies are needed.
St. John’s wort
While this supplement seems to improve symptoms of depression for some people, research hasn’t shown consistent results. It also may not be ideal for long-term use.
Note that St. John’s wort can make certain medications, including some cancer drugs and hormonal birth control, less effective.
People on blood clotting medication should not take St. John’s wort as it interferes with the drug’s effectiveness. You also shouldn’t take it with medications, particularly antidepressants, that increase serotonin.
Research suggests getting more probiotics in your diet may increase tryptophan in your blood, helping more of it to reach your brain.
You can take probiotic supplements or eat probiotic-rich foods, such as yogurt, and fermented foods, such as kimchi or sauerkraut.
Serotonin syndrome warning
Use caution when trying these supplements if you already take medication that increases serotonin. This includes several types of antidepressants.
Too much serotonin could cause serotonin syndrome, a serious condition that can be life threatening without treatment.
If you want to try replacing antidepressants with supplements, work with your healthcare professional to safely taper off antidepressants for at least 2 weeks first. Abruptly stopping can have serious consequences.
Massage therapy helps increase serotonin and dopamine, another mood-related neurotransmitter. It also helps to decrease cortisol, a hormone your body produces when stressed.
One review of 65 studies suggests massage therapy can benefit varying conditions, such as prenatal depression, autoimmune conditions, breast cancer, and dementia. The review of breast cancer reported reduced depression and increased serotonin and dopamine.
While you can see a licensed massage therapist, this might not be necessary. Try swapping 20 minutes of massage with a partner, family member, or friend.
Too little serotonin can negatively impact your mood, but could a good mood help increase serotonin levels? Older 2007 research suggests yes.
Thinking about something that makes you feel good can help increase serotonin in your brain, which can help promote an improved mood in general.
- visualizing a happy moment from your memory
- thinking about a positive experience you had with loved ones
- looking at photos of things that make you happy, such as your pet, a favorite place, or close friends
Keep in mind that moods are complex, and it’s not always that easy to change your mood. But sometimes engaging in the process of trying to direct your thoughts toward a positive place can help.
Chronic stress is known to be linked with a host of health problems, which is why reducing stress is so important. Research has found that chronic stress can even lead to low serotonin levels.
Some ways to reduce stress include:
- practicing yoga
- going to therapy
- practicing deep breathing exercises
- listening to calming music
- saying affirmations
- practicing gratitude
- taking a warm bath
- trying aromatherapy
Yes, partaking in bouts of sleep deprivation could boost serotonin levels. One study found that six hours of sleep deprivation in mice resulted in higher serotonin levels.
However, do note that disrupting your sleep should only occur in moderation and you should talk with your doctor first.
Socializing is imperative for many aspects of wellness and research has found spending time with loved ones can even increase serotonin levels.
Spending time with animals also has its benefits. Cuddle your pet or try volunteering at an animal shelter for an extra boost of serotonin.
Helping others feels good for a reason: Research has shown that kindness can increase serotonin as well as oxytocin and dopamine. One study found that giving support (over being on the receiving end) is an underrated way to boost mood.
It’s been said that laughing is the best medicine. A 2016 review looked into the therapeutic benefits of laughter on mental health and found that laughing can lower stress hormones such as cortisol which, in turn, decreases the stress response.
If you’re looking to increase serotonin to improve mood-related symptoms, including those of depression, these methods may not be enough.
Some people may have lower serotonin levels due to their brain chemistry, and there isn’t much you can do about this on your own. In addition, mood disorders involve a complex mix of brain chemistry, environment, genetics, and other factors.
If you find that your symptoms are starting to impact your day-to-day life, consider reaching out for support from a mental health professional. If you’re concerned about the cost, our guide to affordable therapy can help.
Depending on your symptoms, you may be prescribed a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) or another type of antidepressant. SSRIs help keep your brain from reabsorbing the serotonin that’s released. This leaves more available for use in your brain.
Keep in mind that you may only need to take SSRIs for a few months. For many people, SSRIs can help them get to a place where they can make the most out of treatment and learn how to effectively manage their condition.
Serotonin is an important neurotransmitter, affecting everything from your mood to your bowel movements. If you’re looking to boost your serotonin, there are a few things you can try on your own. However, don’t hesitate to reach out for help if these tips aren’t cutting it.
What you need to know about serotonin
Serotonin is an important monoamine neurotransmitter and hormone that acts in both the brain and the gut. It plays a large role in daily behavior, affecting appetite, emotions, mood, movement, cognition, circadian rhythm, and the "unconscious" nervous system (vegetative). Discovered in the 1940s, serotonin plays a key role in the homeostasis system and many intestinal functions.
Serotonin imbalance is associated with a wide range of symptoms that affect mental and physical health and quality of life. Increasing serotonin levels helps those who suffer from anxiety, depression, migraine or irritable bowel syndrome. Most often, it is during these diseases that the level of serotonin is low. Low serotonin levels have also been linked to depression, intestinal problems, some symptoms of Parkinson's disease, and other health outcomes.
Monoamine neurotransmitters such as serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine affect mood. A meta-analysis of 90 studies found that patients who were deficient in tryptophan, serotonin, or tyrosine experienced low mood. An imbalance of serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine can contribute to bipolar disorder. Low levels of serotonin reduce melatonin levels, which disrupts the sleep-wake cycle.
Fortunately, there are ways to increase the level of serotonin in the body. This will help you take supplements and foods, some of which are already present in our diet.
Foods that increase serotonin levels.
Serotonin is synthesized from tryptophan. Foods containing tryptophan:
According to recent studies, the protein in eggs can significantly increase the level of tryptophan in the blood plasma. Yolks are rich in tryptophan and tyrosine, choline, biotin, omega-3 fatty acids, and other nutrients that contribute greatly to maintaining health.
Cheese is another great source of tryptophan.
Soy products are rich sources of tryptophan. We can add tofu to almost any dish.
In addition, salmon has other beneficial properties: maintaining cholesterol levels and lowering blood pressure. It is also a source of omega-3 fatty acids.
5) Nuts and seeds
Nuts and seeds are a good source of fiber, vitamins, antioxidants and tryptophan.
Turkey meat also contains tryptophan.
Unlike tryptophan, serotonin is not found in foods. Foods high in protein, iron, riboflavin, and vitamin B-6 tend to be high in this amino acid. Although foods high in tryptophan do not by themselves increase serotonin levels, there is a trick to this system. These are carbohydrates, as they cause the body to secrete more insulin. Insulin promotes the absorption of amino acids and an increase in the activity of tryptophan in the blood.
So if you eat a diet high in tryptophan and carbohydrates, you increase your serotonin levels. For best results, consume the above foods with a serving of healthy carbohydrates such as rice, oatmeal, or whole grain bread.
Healthy habits that increase serotonin levels.
1) Stress reduction
Cortisol is a hormone released by the body during times of stress. High stress or high cortisol levels can lower your serotonin levels. How to reduce stress? This will help training, yoga and meditation.
Fatigue after physical activity increases the amount of tryptophan that can cross the blood-brain barrier and increases serotonin production.
3) Yoga and meditation
Yoga and meditation can improve mood and relieve symptoms of various types of depression. Meditation activates many areas of the brain that are important for understanding yourself, emotions, problem solving, and awareness.
Psychotherapy significantly increases serotonin activity and reduces symptoms of depression.
Music has been shown in research to increase neurotransmitters such as serotonin.
Dancing also increases serotonin levels.
Physical treatments that increase serotonin levels:
Neurofeedback allows people to consciously change their brain activity and therefore change their behavior and cognition. Fibromyalgia patients have found that they experience less pain, fatigue, anxiety, and depression after this procedure.
Massage lowers cortisol levels and raises serotonin and dopamine levels. Massage has been proven to be able to cope with health problems associated with stress.
In a clinical study in 75 women with fibromyalgia, acupuncture increased serotonin levels.
4) Light therapy
Bright light therapy (photobiomodulation) shows promising results for the treatment of depression.
5) Electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve
Scientists conducted a study on rats. Long-term stimulation of the vagus nerve (for 14 days) increased the level of serotonin in the brains of rats.
Consult your physician before taking supplements. Follow his recommendations regarding their dosage.
L-tryptophan is used in the body to produce 5-HTP, from which serotonin is made. An increase in L-tryptophan can increase plasma serotonin levels, relieving cognitive, motor, or intestinal problems. In one study, women with PMS took supplements daily for 14 days. They noticed that their mood improved, irritability decreased, sleep problems and cravings for carbohydrates disappeared.
In the digestive tract, probiotics restore the gut microbiome and influence the gut-brain interaction. Gut bacteria are important because they can produce tryptophan, from which serotonin is made.
If vitamin D levels are low, there will be less serotonin in the brain. Thus, increasing vitamin D intake increases serotonin levels, reducing the risk of psychiatric disorders.
Omega-3 fatty acids
While vitamin D helps neurons produce serotonin, omega-3s help neurons release serotonin and increase its activity. Fish such as salmon or trout are rich in omega-3 fatty acids. Omega-3 fatty acid supplements are also sold as fish oil capsules.
St. John's wort
St. John's wort is a popular herb used as an antidepressant for mild depression. The plant increases serotonin levels in the brain, similar to typical antidepressants, but with fewer side effects.
Lack of vitamin B may contribute to the occurrence of mental disorders. The body needs vitamin B6 to produce neurotransmitters like serotonin from 5-HTP. Vitamins B12 and B9 are needed to convert tryptophan to serotonin.
Vitamin C supplementation for 6 weeks increased brain serotonin levels in rats.
Vitamin E supplementation for 8 weeks increased serotonin levels in rats suffering from spinal cord injury.
Magnesium and zinc
Minerals such as zinc and magnesium may have antidepressant effects. Zinc can be increased through foods such as red meat, oysters, and whole grains. Magnesium is found in green leafy vegetables, nuts and beans.
In mice, a single dose of curcumin (10–80 mg/kg) increased serotonin levels.
Green tea has the highest concentration of L-theanine and has a relaxing effect on the mind.
Rhodiola rosea is a herb that helps reduce anxiety and depression. In a clinical study, 89 patients with mild to moderate depression and low serotonin levels took extracts of Rhodiola rosea (340 mg/day and 680 mg/day) for 42 days. They reduced symptoms of depression, including insomnia and emotional instability.
30 mg per day of saffron capsules may improve depressive symptoms in adults with major depressive disorder for 6-8 weeks.
Magnolia bark and ginger root are commonly used to treat mental disorders in traditional Chinese medicine.
Essential oils are commonly used to reduce anxiety, stress, bad mood and other mental disorders. The smell of essential oils (their inhalation) can increase the production of serotonin and dopamine. What types of oils we recommend: ylang-ylang, Surinamese cherry, lavender oil, orange, almond and bergamot.
Ginseng releases serotonin and increases its activity in the brain.
Valerian plant root increases serotonin levels and activity.
How to know the level of serotonin
It is impossible to measure the levels of serotonin in a person's brain without a brain biopsy. Indirect markers that are good indicators of brain serotonin levels are cortisol levels and HIAA levels in the blood or urine.
Excess serotonin can lead to serotonin syndrome, which can be fatal. Usually, excess serotonin occurs in people who take too many medications. MDMA, LSD, and other synthetic drugs can cause serotonin syndrome and should not be taken without a doctor's prescription.
TOP-7 foods that increase the level of the hormone of happiness serotonin
What to eat to increase the hormone of happiness.
In late autumn and winter, when the days are getting shorter and the eye lacks bright colors, people often suffer from seasonal affective disorder. During this period, the body is especially deficient in serotonin - the so-called "happiness hormone". Interestingly, literally "serotonin" is translated as "vigority serum". After all, it is responsible for your mood, memory, social behavior, sexual desire, performance, concentration, etc.
Let's find out exactly how this hormone affects the body:
- Improves blood clotting, so it directly affects the course of menstruation ;
- Supports the work of the gastrointestinal tract;
- Increases pain threshold;
- Provides movement and adds cheerfulness.
In addition to seasonality, lack of serotonin can also be associated with premenstrual syndrome. Therefore, it is important to know how to increase the level of this hormone in order to feel cheerful. Be sure to spend the day in the sun, play sports, and also eat foods rich in tryptophan is an amino acid that is converted into serotonin in the body. Thanks to it, up to 95% of all serotonin in the body is produced in the intestines. Therefore, the champions among "products of happiness" are:
- hard cheese;
- lean meat;
- chicken eggs;
Photo: Getty Images
Almost all of the tryptophan that enters our body is processed by the liver and used for protein synthesis. And yet its an excess of is possible - in particular, with an overdose of drugs and dietary supplements containing this amino acid.
Excess may cause dizziness, headache, fever, nausea, sweating, fast heartbeat and high blood pressure. Therefore, when using preparations containing tryptophan, it is necessary to strictly adhere to the dosage indicated on the package. And remember that the daily intake of tryptophan is 3.5 mg per 1 kg of your weight.
Photo: Getty Images
Even more tips from nutritionist Natalia Samoylenko:
1. Keeps youth and improves eyesight: 5 superpowers of vitamin A
2. How to maintain weight after losing weight: 7 tips from a nutritionist
3. Peganism: Advantages and Disadvantages of the New Diet Trend
4. What happens to the body if you drink with food
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